Cases reported "Brain Edema"

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11/76. Prognostic value of evoked potentials and sleep recordings in the prolonged comatose state of children. Preliminary data.

    OBJECTIVES: sleep recordings and evoked potentials (EPs) were used in five comatose children to evaluate their predictive value for outcome following a severe comatose state. methods AND SUBJECTS: The protocol included EEG, Brainstem Evoked Responses (BERs), Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) and polysomnography. From 10 to 15 days post-coma (D10 to D15), EEG and clinical examinations were carried out every second day, then one day in four from 15 to 30 days post-coma (D15 to D30), and one day in seven from D30 to six months (M6). evoked potentials and polysomnography were recorded on D10-D15 or D30 in the second month (M2) and in M6. Of the five children, three were in anoxic coma and two in traumatic coma. All had extensive lesions and a glasgow coma scale (GCS) score of less than five. The results of the EEG, polysomnographic and EP recordings were compared to the clinical outcome. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: In the three anoxic comas we observed BER abnormalities and the absence of SEP N20 associated with wide cortical lesions with brainstem extension. sleep recordings showed major alterations of the wake-sleep cycle without any improvement in M6. Abnormalities included loss of the normal REM-sleep pattern associated with alteration of NREM sleep and periods of increase in motor activity without EEG arousal. This sleep pattern appeared to be associated with involvement of the brainstem. In the two traumatic comas, alterations of the early cortical SEP responses were less severe and the BERs were normal. Some sleep spindles were observed as well as the persistence of sleep cycles in the first weeks post-coma. The combined use of EEG, EPs and polysomnography improved the outcome prediction in comparison with the use of just one modality. EPs and sleep recordings were far superior to clinical evaluation and to GCS in the appreciation of the functional status of comatose children. The reappearance of sleep patterns is considered to be of favorable prognosis for outcome of the coma state, as is the presence of sleep spindles in post-trauma coma. This study showed that EPs and sleep recordings help to further distinguish between patients with good or bad outcomes.
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12/76. delirium at high altitude.

    A 35-year-old man on a trek to the Mount Everest region of nepal presented with a sudden, acute confusional state at an altitude of about 5000 m. Although described at higher altitudes, delirium presenting alone has not been documented at 5000 m or at lower high altitudes. The differential diagnosis which includes acute mountain sickness and high altitude cerebral edema is discussed. Finally, the importance of travelling with a reliable partner and using proper insurance is emphasized in treks to the Himalayas.
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13/76. Assessment of prognostic factors in severe traumatic brain injury patients treated by mild therapeutic cerebral hypothermia therapy.

    This study analyzed the predictable factors of outcome such as neuro-parameters and systemic complications to elucidate the indications for therapeutic hypothermia. In our institute, 35 patients with severe head injury (Glasgow Coma Scale 3-7) were treated with mild hypothermia therapy (33 degrees-35 degrees C). Twenty-two of these 35 patients underwent complete neuromonitoring and outcome assessments by glasgow outcome scale (GOS) at three months after injury. GOS of hypothermia group was significantly better than another patient group which was treated without mild hypothermia therapy. The hypothermia group was divided into two groups: good outcome (GOOD) (good recovery or moderate disability; n = 9, 40.9%) and poor outcome (POOR) (severe disability, vegetative state, or death; n = 13, 59.1%). The mean age (mean 30.2 years, range 9-46) was significantly lower in GOOD than in POOR (mean 45.2 years, range 17-62). patients aged over 50 years had poor outcome. CPP was significantly higher in GOOD during hypothermia. All patients with thrombocytopenia had poor outcome. hypothermia therapy can improve outcome in patients with traumatic brain injury who are younger than 50 years old, without severe brain damage, and if improvement of cerebral perfusion is expected. Systemic complications must be prevented as far as possible by combination with other therapies.
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14/76. Unexplained drowsiness and progressive visual loss: methanol poisoning diagnosed at autopsy.

    A patient was admitted to the emergency department with a reduced level of consciousness and deteriorating vision. Her pupils became fixed and dilated and she developed a third nerve palsy with extensor posturing of her limbs. biochemistry profile showed an increased serum osmolar gap with a raised anion gap metabolic acidosis. Supportive treatment was instituted, but she made no recovery and brainstem death was later confirmed. Post mortem examination and toxicology screen confirmed the cause of death as methanol poisoning leading to cerebral oedema and transtentorial herniation. We highlight some of the diagnostic difficulties associated with treating a patient with a reduced level of consciousness. The clinical and biochemical findings that are critical in establishing a diagnosis of methanol intoxication are discussed. The definitive management of methanol poisoning is reviewed.
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15/76. amniotic fluid embolism with involvement of the brain, lungs, adrenal glands, and heart.

    The case of a healthy 31-year-old woman in the 40th week of second pregnancy is presented. During preparation for an emergency caesarean section, she developed an amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) with unusual and unique features. The acute onset of disease with cardiorespiratory failure with hypotension, tachycardia, cyanosis, respiratory disturbances and loss of consciousness, suggested at first a pulmonary thromboembolism, but the appearance of convulsions led to the diagnosis of AFE. The patient died after 5 days due to an untreatable brain edema. At autopsy, AFE with the usually associated disseminated intravascular coagulation was found in the lungs, brain, left adrenal gland, kidneys, liver and heart. Eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrates were found in the lungs, hepatic portal fields and especially in the heart, suggesting a specific hypersensitivity reaction to fetal antigens. Moreover, intravascular accumulation of macrophages in the lungs also favored a non-specific immune reaction to amniotic fluid constituents.
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16/76. Complete recovery from fulminant hepatic failure with severe coma by living donor liver transplantation.

    In japan, living donor liver transplantation has been established as a therapeutic strategy for the rescue of terminal liver disease, including fulminant hepatic failure that shows no signs of recovery. We performed living donor liver transplantation for a subacute type fulminant hepatic failure patient, who had developed a hepatic coma of grade V (no right reflex, no response to pain stimuli). The electroencephalogram indicated almost flat waves. However, cranial computed tomography revealed that brain edema was not severe in this case. The recipient did not have hepatitis virus and had not taken medication that had been determined to cause hepatitis. The recipient was a 12-year-old boy, 165.5 cm in height and 45.5 kg in weight. The donor was his mother, who was 42 years old; her blood type, type B, was identical to that of the boy. The mother's right hepatic lobe was transplanted to her son (the recipient). The post-transplantation condition of recipient was quite excellent. He recovered consciousness 3 days after liver transplantation, and rapidly attained normal hepatic function. The donor was discharged on the 20th postoperative day without any problems. The recipient was discharged on the 79th postoperative day without any neurological deficits. This case suggests that deep coma without electroencephalogram waves may not be a contraindication for living donor liver transplantation in fulminant hepatic failure patients, if the brain edema is not severe.
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17/76. The role of parenteral nutrition as a supplement to enteral nutrition in patients with severe brain injury.

    Enteral nutrition (EN) is the preferred and safe route of feeding in surgical patients incapable of self-nutrition. We describe three patients with severe brain insult and recurrent sepsis, who despite the early introduction of EN, remained hypoalbuminaemic, hypoproteinaemic and developed peripheral oedema. This state persisted, despite increasing the caloric and protein intake via the enteral route. However, after a short course of supplemental parenteral nutrition (PN), albumin and total protein levels improved, with resolution of peripheral oedema. We hypothesize that, in certain critically ill neurosurgical patients on EN, gastrointestinal malabsorption may underlie a persistently low serum albumin, total protein and peripheral oedema. A short course of supplemental PN may help to reverse this and a normal regimen of EN can then be continued.
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18/76. Treatment of extreme hyperglycemia monitored with intracerebral microdialysis.

    OBJECTIVE: Description of a pediatric patient with hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome where the treatment was monitored with intracerebral microdialysis. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: intensive care unit at a university hospital. PATIENT: An 11-yr-old boy with new-onset diabetes who presented with a blood glucose concentration of 100 mmol/L (1800 mg/dL) and a serum osmolality of 448 mOsm/kg. INTERVENTIONS: Interventions included intracerebral and subcutaneous microdialysis as well as intracranial pressure monitoring during correction of the hyperosmolar condition. The strategy was to decrease osmolality by 1 mOsm.kg(-1).hr(-1) and blood glucose by 1.5 mmol.L(-1).hr(-1) (27 mg/dL). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The concentrations of glucose in the subcutaneous dialysates corresponded to the blood glucose concentrations. The brain/subcutaneous glucose ratio varied between 0.20 and 1.28 (mean, 0.43; median, 0.4). When the blood glucose decreased quickly after steady state, the brain/subcutaneous ratio increased sharply, demonstrating that the normalization of glucose in the brain was slower than that in blood. CONCLUSIONS: microdialysis can be used to monitor the brain/subcutaneous glucose ratio in patients with extreme hyperglycemia. A rapid decrease in blood glucose increases the brain/subcutaneous glucose ratio, which may be a potential risk factor for osmotic brain edema. microdialysis may prove to be a valuable tool in treatment management. The child made a full recovery.
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19/76. Severe high-altitude cerebral edema on the Inca Trail.

    The following case history serves to reiterate the practical dangers of trekking at altitude. Despite the latter-day rise in the profile of altitude-related dangers, risks can still be understated to clients and poorly prepared for, even on commonly walked routes. Financial pressures can sometimes outweigh safety considerations.
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20/76. Acute aortic dissection with new massive cerebral infarction - a successful repair with ligature of the right common carotid artery.

    It remains unclear whether or not the infarcted brain caused by aortic dissection should be reperfused when an emergency operation is needed for aortic arch dissection. A 64-year-old woman presented with severe back pain and syncope with a sudden left hemiplegia. CT scan demonstrated an aortic dissection of the entire aorta, obstruction of the right common carotid artery by extended aortic dissection, cerebral infarction of the right middle cerebral artery territory, brain edema and pericardial effusion. Though she was unable to communicate with us, she underwent an emergent aortic arch replacement and ligature of the right common carotid artery nine hours after the onset of stroke, when massive cerebral infarction was established. She survived the operation and regained full consciousness. When brain infarction was established by extended aortic dissection in emergent aortic surgery, concomitant ligature of the responsible artery to the brain infarction may be allowed for avoiding cerebral damage leading to brain death.
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