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1/8. MRI and CT findings of infected cephalhaematoma complicated by skull vault osteomyelitis, transverse venous sinus thrombosis and cerebellar haemorrhage.

    We present the CT and MRI findings of an 8-day-old infant with an infected cephalhaematoma complicated by skull osteomyelitis, venous sinus thrombosis and left cerebellar haemorrhage. ( info)

2/8. Cutaneous stimulation improves function of a chronic patient with cerebellar damage.

    The prognosis of cerebellar hemorrhage with brain stem compression is known to be poor, and patients who can usually survive are severely disabled with limited benefit from conventional rehabilitation. An innovative cutaneous stimulation was administered to a chronic patient (2 years after the incidence) who has severe ataxia, gait imbalance and limb spasticity caused by cerebellar hemorrhage. After 8 months of intervention, patient's function as evaluated by two functional measures has improved by 40%. In addition, the patient's ataxia and hypotonia have improved significantly in which he has regained the abilities to grasp objects, sit upright, control his equilibrium, and monitor an electric wheelchair. The present case study demonstrated a significant improvement of a chronic severely disabled patient who received the intervention 2 years after the accident, suggesting that the cutaneous stimulation may be a possible effective neurologic intervention. ( info)

3/8. Remote cerebellar hemorrhage after a spinal surgery complicated by dural tear: case report and literature review.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: This report presents a case in which cerebellar hemorrhage occurred after lumbar decompression surgery that was complicated by dural tear and prolonged cerebrospinal fluid leakage. Remote cerebellar hemorrhage after spinal surgery is extremely rare. Our objective is to describe this unusual complication, discuss the possible mechanisms of remote cerebellar hemorrhage, and review the literature. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 73-year-old woman underwent surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis. A dural tear occurred during decompression, and the patient developed remote cerebellar hemorrhage on postoperative Day 2. INTERVENTION: The cerebellar hemorrhage was treated surgically, and a biopsy of hemorrhagic brain parenchyma revealed an arteriovenous malformation. CONCLUSION: Although it is an extremely rare complication, remote cerebellar hemorrhage should be kept in mind as a possible complication of spinal surgery, especially in operations complicated by dural tears. ( info)

4/8. hemosiderin pigmentation of tumour cells in cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma associated with post-traumatic hemorrhage in adults.

    The pilocytic astrocytoma is only rarely associated with gross intratumoral hemorrhage despite rich vasculature and blood vessel changes, accompanied often by perivascular depots of hemosiderin. We report an unusual case of pigmented cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma presenting with posttraumatic hemorrhage in a 38-year-old man with no history related to the tumor. CT and MRI examination after head injury demonstrated unexpectedly the cystic lesion of 2 cm in diameter in the region of the right cerebellar hemisphere and vermis. The lesion was associated with hematoma and it was surgically removed 3 weeks after trauma. Histopathological examination revealed pilocytic astrocytoma tissue with broad hemorrhagic changes and with an unusual pattern of massive pigmentation of the cytoplasm of pilocytic astrocytes, consistent with hemosiderosis. Positive stains for iron and ferritin and ultrastructural study confirmed deposition of hemosiderin granules in the tumour cells. There was no evidence of melanin or melanosomes. This finding of hemosiderin accumulation in the cytoplasm of neoplastic astroglia seems to be analogous to post-hemorrhagic pigmentation of the normal Bergmann glia and subpial astrocytes. In the literature, the examples of neuroepithelial tumors with hemosiderin pigmentation of tumor cells have been rarely documented. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of pigmented pilocytic astrocytoma exhibiting extensive intracellular hemosiderin deposition. ( info)

5/8. Perceptual expertise effects are not all or none: spatially limited perceptual expertise for faces in a case of prosopagnosia.

    We document a seemingly unique case of severe prosopagnosia, L. R., who suffered damage to his anterior and inferior right temporal lobe as a result of a motor vehicle accident. We systematically investigated each of three factors associated with expert face recognition: fine-level discrimination, holistic processing, and configural processing (Experiments 1-3). Surprisingly, L. R. shows preservation of all three of these processes; that is, his performance in these experiments is comparable to that of normal controls. However, L. R. is only able to apply these processes over a limited spatial extent to the fine-level detail within faces. Thus, when the location of a given change is unpredictable (Experiment 3), L. R. exhibits normal detection of features and spatial configurations only for the lower half of each face. Similarly, when required to divide his attention over multiple face features, L. R. is able to determine the identity of only a single feature (Experiment 4). We discuss these results in the context of forming a better understanding of prosopagnosia and the mechanisms used in face recognition and visual expertise. We conclude that these mechanisms are not "all-or-none," but rather can be impaired incrementally, such that they may remain functional over a restricted spatial area. This conclusion is consistent with previous research suggesting that perceptual expertise is acquired in a spatially incremental manner [Gauthier, I., & Tarr, M. J. Unraveling mechanisms for expert object recognition: Bridging brain activity and behavior. Journal of Experimental psychology: Human perception & Performance, 28, 431-446, 2002]. ( info)

6/8. A metacognitive contextual intervention to enhance error awareness and functional outcome following traumatic brain injury: a single-case experimental design.

    Very few empirically validated interventions for improving metacognitive skills (i.e., self-awareness and self-regulation) and functional outcomes have been reported. This single-case experimental study presents JM, a 36-year-old man with a very severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) who demonstrated long-term awareness deficits. Treatment at four years post-injury involved a metacognitive contextual intervention based on a conceptualization of neuro-cognitive, psychological, and socio-environmental factors contributing to his awareness deficits. The 16-week intervention targeted error awareness and self-correction in two real life settings: (a) cooking at home; and (b) volunteer work. Outcome measures included behavioral observation of error behavior and standardized awareness measures. Relative to baseline performance in the cooking setting, JM demonstrated a 44% reduction in error frequency and increased self-correction. Although no spontaneous generalization was evident in the volunteer work setting, specific training in this environment led to a 39% decrease in errors. JM later gained paid employment and received brief metacognitive training in his work environment. JM's global self-knowledge of deficits assessed by self-report was unchanged after the program. overall, the study provides preliminary support for a metacognitive contextual approach to improve error awareness and functional outcome in real life settings. ( info)

7/8. Remote cerebellar hemorrhage.

    Remote cerebellar hemorrhage (RCH) is a rare but benign, self-limited complication of supratentorial craniotomies that, to the best of our knowledge, has not been described in the imaging literature. RCH can be an unexpected finding on routine postoperative imaging studies and should not be mistaken for more ominous causes of bleeding such as coagulopathy, hemorrhagic infarction, or cortical vein occlusion. Cerebellar hemorrhage in the typical setting can be identified as RCH and does not require more extensive or invasive evaluation. ( info)

8/8. Cerebellar hemorrhage caused by remote neurological surgery.

    INTRODUCTION: Intracranial hemorrhage usually occurs as a complication of hypertension, coagulopathy, or trauma. In rare instances, remote cerebellar hemorrhage (RCH) may complicate supratentorial or spinal surgery. methods: Retrospective case series study. RESULTS: We describe three cases of RCH complicating spinal and cranial surgical procedures associated with cerebrospinal fluid hypotension. CONCLUSIONS: Remote cerebellar intracranial hemorrhage may complicate neurosurgical procedures in which cerebrospinal fluid hypotension occurs. ( info)

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