Cases reported "Brain Infarction"

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1/45. Massive cerebral embolization: successful treatment with retrograde perfusion.

    stroke is an unpredictable and morbid complication of cardiac operations. We report a patient who suffered massive bilateral cerebral embolization during aortic cannulation for coronary bypass. This was treated successfully with hypothermic circulatory arrest and high flow retrograde cerebral perfusion. The patient suffered only minimal neurologic impairment and improved rapidly. She was discharged home on postoperative day 7 neurologically intact.
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2/45. Involuntary masturbation as a manifestation of stroke-related alien hand syndrome.

    alien hand syndrome is a perplexing and uncommon clinical diagnosis. We report an unusual manifestation of alien hand syndrome in a 73-yr-old man with a right anterior cerebral artery infarct affecting the right medial frontal cortex and the anterior portion of the corpus callosum. We conclude that alien hand syndrome should be considered in patients who present with a feeling of alienation of one or both upper limbs accompanied by complex purposeful involuntary movement.
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keywords = cerebral
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3/45. Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome manifested as a postoperative cerebrovascular event in a child.

    Perioperative cerebrovascular events are exceedingly uncommon in pediatric patients. The etiology of such problems includes emboli from intracardiac thrombi, sickle cell disease, vascular anomalies, vasculitis affecting the cerebral vasculature, and prothrombotic states. We describe a 6-year-old boy who had right-sided hemiparesis on the second postoperative day after an uneventful patch angioplasty for renal artery stenosis. Workup revealed a possible hypercoagulable state due to an anticardiolipin antibody. The pathogenesis of the anticardiolipin antibody syndrome, its clinical manifestations, diagnostic criteria, and potential treatment strategies are reviewed.
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keywords = cerebral
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4/45. Total recovery after bilateral paramedian thalamic infarct.

    Bilateral paramedian thalamic infarcts are characterised initially by the association of acute vigilance disorders and vertical gaze palsy, followed by persisting dementia with severe mnemic disturbance, global aspontaneity and apathy. We describe a patient with a dramatic neuropsychological recovery, confirmed by testing examination and completed by a cerebral metabolism study. The pathophysiology of this type of cognitive deficit is discussed.
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keywords = cerebral
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5/45. perfusion magnetic resonance imaging maps in hyperacute stroke: relative cerebral blood flow most accurately identifies tissue destined to infarct.

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In ischemic stroke, perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) provide important pathophysiological information. A PWI>DWI mismatch pattern suggests the presence of salvageable tissue. However, improved methods for distinguishing PWI>DWI mismatch tissue that is critically hypoperfused from benign oligemia are required. methods: We investigated the usefulness of maps of relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF), volume (rCBV), and mean transit time (rMTT) to predict transition to infarction in hyperacute (<6 hours) stroke patients with PWI>DWI mismatch patterns. Semiquantitative color-thresholded analysis was used to measure hypoperfusion volumes, including increasing color signal intensity thresholds of rMTT delay, which were compared with infarct expansion, outcome infarct size, and clinical status. RESULTS: Acute rCBF lesion volume had the strongest correlation with final infarct size (r=0.91, P<0.001) and clinical outcome (r=0.67, P<0.01). There was a trend for acute rCBF>DWI mismatch volume to overestimate infarct expansion between the acute and outcome study (P=0.06). Infarct expansion was underestimated by acute rCBV>DWI mismatch (P<0.001). When rMTT lesions included tissue with moderately prolonged transit times (mean delay 4.3 seconds, signal intensity values 50% to 70%), infarct expansion was overestimated. In contrast, when rMTT lesions were restricted to more severely prolonged transit times (mean delay 6.1 seconds, signal intensity >70%), these regions progressed to infarction in all except 1 patient, but infarct expansion was underestimated (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The acute rCBF lesion most accurately identified tissue in the PWI>DWI mismatch region at risk of infarction. color-thresholded PWI maps show potential for use in an acute clinical setting to prospectively predict tissue outcome.
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keywords = cerebral
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6/45. Bilateral sudden deafness as a prodrome of anterior inferior cerebellar artery infarction.

    BACKGROUND: Acute ischemic stroke in the distribution of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery is known to be associated with hearing loss, facial weakness, ataxia, nystagmus, and hypalgesia. There have been few reports on bilateral deafness and vertebrobasilar occlusive disease. Furthermore, previous reports have not emphasized the inner ear as a localization of bilateral deafness. OBJECTIVE: To describe the presentation of acute ischemic stroke in the distribution of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery as sudden bilateral hearing loss with minimal associated signs. DESIGN AND SETTING: Case report and tertiary care hospital. PATIENT: A 66-year-old man with diabetes mellitus developed sudden bilateral deafness, unilateral tinnitus, and vertigo 7 days before the onset of dysarthria, facial weakness, and ataxia. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans showed hyperintensities in the right lateral pons and right middle cerebral peduncle and a possible abnormality of the left middle cerebellar peduncle. A magnetic resonance angiogram showed moderately severe stenosis of the distal vertebral artery and middle third of the basilar artery. The patient's right limb coordination and gait improved steadily over several weeks, but there was no improvement in hearing in his right ear. CONCLUSIONS: The relatively isolated onset of deafness as well as the severity and persistence of the hearing loss led us to conclude that the hearing loss in this case was likely due to prominent hypoperfusion of the internal auditory artery, with labyrinthine infarction as the earliest event. Vertebrobasilar occlusive disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of sudden bilateral deafness.
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ranking = 0.16666666666667
keywords = cerebral
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7/45. Patent foramen ovale complicated by paradoxical embolism and brain infarct in a patient with advanced ovarian cancer.

    BACKGROUND: Recent investigations of patients with cerebral and peripheral arterial emboli of unknown cause suggest that paradoxical embolism through a patent foramen ovale might be responsible for more arterial embolic events than previously realized. CASE: A 60-year-old woman with advanced ovarian cancer presented with sudden onset of expressive aphasia and right upper hemiplegia postoperatively. A patent foramen ovale diagnosed by echocardiography with contrast combined with the presence of thrombosis in her right femoral vein leads us to speculate that her stroke was secondary to a paradoxical embolism. CONCLUSION: Paradoxical embolism should be considered in the differential diagnosis of ovarian cancer patients with embolic stroke and it may be appropriate to include a cardiac echo as part of the diagnostic evaluation.
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ranking = 0.23229995625773
keywords = cerebral, foramen
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8/45. Haemorrhagic venous infarction following the posterior petrosal approach for acoustic neurinoma surgery: a report of two cases.

    The authors report two surgical cases with acoustic neurinoma in which haemorrhagic infarction occurred via a compromise in cerebral deep venous outflow. In both cases, surgery was performed via the posterior petrosal approach, and the neurinomas were completely removed. In the first case, the haemorrhagic infarction was considered to have resulted from transection of the tentorial sinus, the presence of which had not been predictable by preoperative angiography. In the second case, the haemorrhagic infarction was caused by a coagulation of the petrosal vein, which was firmly adherent to a tumour. With the posterior petrosal approach, meticulous care is necessary to preserve the deep anastomotic veins into and around the cerebellar tentorium. Thereby, catastrophic morbidity related to compromised deep cerebral venous outflow can be avoided.
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keywords = cerebral
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9/45. Thalamic venous infarction as a cause of subacute dementia.

    The clinical picture of deep cerebral vein thromboses (DCVT) usually is acute, combining vigilance disorders, headaches, and focal neurologic deficit. The authors describe a patient who presented with isolated subacute dementia as the sole manifestation of DCVT. In the setting of subacute cognitive deficit, the diagnosis of DCVT must be considered when neuroimaging shows bilateral thalamic changes. Enhanced venous MR angiography is the noninvasive method of choice to ascertain the diagnosis.
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keywords = cerebral
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10/45. A rare sign of intracranial internal carotid artery dissection causing cerebral infarction: a case report and review of the literature.

    We describe a patient with CT-proven ischemic infarction of the left middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory. The emergency CT, on admission, was suggestive of intracranial internal carotid artery dissection by demonstrating gaseous gap defects in the arterial wall and a subsequent thromboembolic process in the MCA. To our knowledge, there is no previous report regarding radiologically detected gas within the vessel wall or lumen secondary to dissection. We discuss this uncommon radiologic sign and its possible pathogenesis with a review of the literature.
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ranking = 0.83333333333333
keywords = cerebral
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