Cases reported "Brain Infarction"

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1/22. An unusual homonymous visual field defect.

    A 75-year-old man suddenly became aware of an inferior right homonymous visual field defect. Although static perimetry suggested a lesion of the left lateral geniculate nucleus, kinetic perimetry indicated that the presumed homonymous horizontal sectoranopia noted on static perimetry was actually an incomplete homonymous hemianopia with incomplete sparing of the temporal crescent. The location of the lesion was subsequently confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. This case shows the value of kinetic perimetry in assessing homonymous visual field defects.
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keywords = visual
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2/22. Apraxic agraphia due to thalamic infarction.

    The authors report a patient of pure apraxic agraphia with normal praxis due to left thalamic infarction. 15O-gas-PET showed reduced oxygen metabolism in the left thalamus and the left dorsolateral premotor area, while MRI and 11C-fulumazenil-PET showed no remarkable lesions in the frontal cortex. The patient's word imaging remained normal. The authors hypothesize that thalamic destruction causes pure apraxic agraphia by exerting a remote effect on left dorsolateral premotor area and blocking somewhere between graphemic area and motor programming.
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ranking = 1.0409681810033
keywords = cortex
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3/22. Involuntary masturbation as a manifestation of stroke-related alien hand syndrome.

    alien hand syndrome is a perplexing and uncommon clinical diagnosis. We report an unusual manifestation of alien hand syndrome in a 73-yr-old man with a right anterior cerebral artery infarct affecting the right medial frontal cortex and the anterior portion of the corpus callosum. We conclude that alien hand syndrome should be considered in patients who present with a feeling of alienation of one or both upper limbs accompanied by complex purposeful involuntary movement.
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ranking = 1.0409681810033
keywords = cortex
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4/22. Auditory and visual spatial localization deficits following bilateral parietal lobe lesions in a patient with Balint's syndrome.

    Lesion and electrophysiological studies indicate that the parietal lobes play a role in visual spatial attention and in computing the spatial coordinates of visual input. Fewer studies have investigated the role of the parietal lobe in auditory spatial processing, and an extensive comparison of visual and auditory spatial processing in humans with parietal lobe lesions has yet to be conducted. We have studied such localization abilities in a Balint's syndrome patient (RM) who has bilateral parietal lobe lesions. The results indicated that this patient had a significant deficit in both visual and auditory localization relative to age-matched controls. Unlike the controls, however, RM's auditory localization ability either matched or exceeded his visual localization ability depending on the task. Accordingly, RM exhibited "auditory capture," but not "visual capture" under conditions where control subjects showed the opposite pattern. These results are consistent with hypotheses that the parietal lobes are involved in creating multiple spatial representations and in shifting from one spatial reference point to another, but suggest that these parietal structures are not necessary for the integration of multiple sensory stimuli resulting in capture effects.
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ranking = 1.6666666666667
keywords = visual
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5/22. Interhemispheric reorganization of motor hand function to the primary motor cortex predicted with functional magnetic resonance imaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    The objective of this study was presurgical assessment of reorganization of motor hand function in an 11-year-old girl with intractable epilepsy and a right-sided hemiplegia resulting from an extensive perinatal left hemispheric stroke. Prior to a left functional hemispherectomy, functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed that both nonparetic and paretic motor hand function predominantly activated the right primary motor cortex, whereas no activation was found in the left hemisphere. transcranial magnetic stimulation of the right central area yielded responses in both the nonparetic and the paretic hand, whereas no responses were obtained after stimulation of the affected hemisphere. Both techniques indicated that motor function was mediated by corticospinal fibers originating from the undamaged (primary) motor cortex and predicted no further loss of motor hand function after surgery. Indeed, subsequent functional hemispherectomy induced no new sensorimotor deficits. Functional MRI was repeated 22 months after surgery and matched preoperative sensorimotor functional MRI findings, confirming reorganization of the primary motor cortex. No additional reorganization was introduced by surgery.
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ranking = 7.2867772670228
keywords = cortex
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6/22. Comparison of 1.5 and 8 tesla high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging of lacunar infarcts.

    PURPOSE: We present a case report comparing 1.5 fast spin-echo (FSE) and high-resolution 8 Tesla (T) gradient echo (GE) MRI of a patient with multiple lacunar infarcts. methods: A 51-year-old man with a history of previous lacunar infarctions was studied with two-dimensional Fourier transform axial 8 T GE MRI using the following parameters: 3 mm thick slices skip 3 mm, flip-angle approximately 20 degrees, TR 800 milliseconds, TE 12 milliseconds, 1024 x 1024 matrix, field of view (FOV) 20 cm, and bandwidth 50 kHz. These images were then compared with routine clinical 1.5 T T2-weighted FSE images with 5 mm thick sections, 256 x 256, FOV 20, TR 5650, TE 102, and 16 echo train length. RESULTS: The majority of the infarctions were seen as areas of high signal intensity on both the 1.5 and 8 T images. They were seen in the corona radiata or the basal ganglia. More lesions were seen on the 8 T images. Low intensity signal was best demonstrated on the 8 T images at segments of the periphery of a few of the larger infarcts. There were a few small punctate low signal intensity regions localized at the termination of some of the microvessels on the 8 T images only. The foci of decreased signal intensity in regions of chronic hemorrhage appeared larger on the 8 T images compared with the 1.5 T images. The 8 T images demonstrated direct visualization of many small vessels, primarily in the deep white matter, which were not visible on the 1.5 T images. On the 8 T images, some of the infarcts appeared to be located between the medullary veins of the deep white matter. CONCLUSION: This case report indicates that GE 8 T images demonstrate more infarctions compared with the FSE 1.5 T images. It is possible to simultaneously identify the microvessels of the brain, small foci of hemorrhage, and lacunar infarctions using 8 T MRI.
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ranking = 0.16666666666667
keywords = visual
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7/22. Radical "visual capture" observed in a patient with severe visual agnosia.

    We report the case of a 79-year-old female with visual agnosia due to brain infarction in the left posterior cerebral artery. She could recognize objects used in daily life rather well by touch (the number of objects correctly identified was 16 out of 20 presented objects), but she could not recognize them as well by vision (6 out of 20). In this case, it was expected that she would recognize them well when permitted to use touch and vision simultaneously. Our patient, however, performed poorly, producing 5 correct answers out of 20 in the Vision-and-touch condition. It would be natural to think that visual capture functions when vision and touch provide contradictory information on concrete positions and shapes. However, in the present case, it functioned in spite of the visual deficit in recognizing objects. This should be called radical visual capture. By presenting detailed descriptions of her symptoms and neuropsychological and neuroradiological data, we clarify the characteristics of this type of capture.
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ranking = 2
keywords = visual
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8/22. Ischemic infarct involving all arterial territories of the thalamus.

    Ischemic infarcts of the thalamus involve one or two of its four arterial territories that are usually supplied by the posterior cerebral (PCA) and the posterior communicating (PCoA) arteries. We report a patient who suffered ischemic infarcts in all arterial territories of the right thalamus. Magnetic resonance (MR) angiography showed an occlusion of the right PCA and failed to visualize a PCoA. We assume that the absence of a relevant thalamic blood supply deriving from the PCoA enabled PCA occlusion to cause infarcts in all thalamic territories.
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ranking = 0.16666666666667
keywords = visual
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9/22. Venous cavernoma at 8 Tesla MRI.

    Cavernous angiomas or cavernomas are vascular malformations, which may be associated with risk of bleeding episodes. We present a case report comparing high resolution 8 Tesla gradient echo (GE) imaging with routine fast spin echo (FSE) at 1.5 Tesla in a patient with venous cavernoma. A 55-year-old male with a history of hemorrhagic stroke was studied using high-resolution 8 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system, which revealed venous cavernoma (9 x 8.6 mm) in the left parietal region and visualized adjacent microvascular supply. Signal loss was prominent in the cavernoma region compared to surrounding brain tissue, and signal intensity declined by factor 7.3 /- 2.4 (679 /- 62%) on GE images at 8 Tesla. Cavernoma was not apparent on routine T(2)-weighted FSE images at 1.5 Tesla MRI. This case report indicates that GE images at 8 Tesla can be useful for evaluation of vascular pathologies and microvasculature.
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ranking = 0.16666666666667
keywords = visual
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10/22. Cognitive and motor functioning in a patient with selective infarction of the left basal ganglia: evidence for decreased non-routine response selection and performance.

    Focal damage to the basal ganglia is relatively rare, and little is known about the cognitive effects of damage to specific basal ganglia structures. A 28-year-old, highly educated male (patient RI) sustained a unilateral left ischemic infarction involving primarily the putamen and secondarily the head of the caudate and the anterior internal capsule. Two detailed neuropsychological assessments, at 3 and 16 months post-infarction, revealed that a majority of cognitive abilities were spared. RI's general intelligence, simple attention, concept formation, cognitive flexibility, and explicit memory were unaffected. Select cognitive abilities were affected, and these appeared to be related to direct involvement of the putamen and/or to indirect disruption of circuits between the basal ganglia and frontal lobes. Consistent with involvement of the left putamen, RI showed micrographia with his right hand. Interestingly, his micrographia was context-dependent, appearing only when verbal expression was involved (e.g., present when writing spontaneously, but not when copying sentences or when drawing). Evidence of disruption to frontal systems included variably decreased sustained attention, mildly decreased ability to generate words and to generate ideas, and significantly impaired abstraction ability in both verbal and visual modalities. Although there are several possible interpretations for these findings, this pattern of cognitive and motor functioning is consistent with neuroimaging research suggesting that the frontal/subcortical circuit between the putamen and frontal motor areas plays a role in non-routine response selection and performance.
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keywords = visual
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