Cases reported "Brain Infarction"

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1/17. osteomyelitis, lateral sinus thrombosis, and temporal lobe infarction caused by infection of a percutaneous cochlear implant.

    OBJECTIVE: cochlear implantation has become a routine operation in the last 10 years. The most common soft tissue complications with transcutaneous cochlear implants include infection or necrosis of the flap and extrusion of the implant and device failure. The most common complication reported with percutaneous devices include minor skin irritations at the pedestal site, retraction of skin from the pedestal site, and loosening of screws that retain the pedestal. We describe one case of lateral sinus thrombosis and secondary temporal lobe infarction caused by infection of a screw anchoring the percutaneous pedestal of an Ineraid implant. STUDY DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. CONCLUSIONS: Intracranial complications of a percutaneous bone-anchored pedestal may occur with little prodrome. Computed tomography (CT) scan of the pedestal and bone anchoring screws may be indicated if local evidence of infection persists.
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ranking = 1
keywords = thrombosis
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2/17. A hazard of combining the infratentorial supracerebellar and the cerebellomedullary fissure approaches: cerebellar venous insufficiency.

    The infratentorial supracerebellar approach is a popular technique for exposure of lesions of the superior vermis and pineal region. The cerebellomedullary fissure approach is enjoying increasing application as a technique for exposure of the fourth ventricle. Occasionally, a tumor that arises in the quadrigeminal plate or the superior vermis grows to fill the fourth ventricle, and for such a case a combination of the infratentorial supracerebellar approach and the cerebellomedullary fissure approach might be considered. We report a grave hazard of this combination. Two patients with tumors involving the superior vermis and filling the fourth ventricle were managed with a combined infratentorial supracerebellar/cerebellomedullary fissure approach. The first patient, who underwent a bilateral exposure, died on the sixth postoperative day due to massive hemorrhagic venous infarction of the cerebellum. The second patient, who was explored on one side only, suffered a protracted postoperative course characterized by suboccipital pain, torticollis, feeding difficulties and persisting hydrocephalus. Postoperative imaging showed swelling of the inferior vermis and ipsilateral hemisphere of the cerebellum with unilateral tonsillar herniation. Simultaneous compromise of the galenic and tentorial bridging veins and interruption of collateral pathways between these systems and the petrosal bridging veins, as in the combined infratentorial supracerebellar/cerebellomedullary fissure approach, may cause cerebellar venous insufficiency with venous congestion and possible venous infarction.
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ranking = 0.0023708802656964
keywords = vein
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3/17. Interaction of heritable and estrogen-induced thrombophilia: possible etiologies for ischemic optic neuropathy and ischemic stroke.

    Our specific aim was to assess how thrombophilic exogenous estrogens interacted with heritable thrombophilias leading to non-arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) and ischemic stroke. Coagulation measures were performed in a 74 year old patient and her immediate family. The proband had a 47 year history of 9 previous thrombotic episodes, and developed unilateral NAION 4 years after starting estrogen replacement therapy (ERT). The proband was heterozygous for two thrombophilic gene mutations (G20210A prothrombin gene, platelet glycoprotein IIIa P1A1/A2 polymorphism), and homozygous for the C677T mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene. Of 238 normal controls, none had these 3 gene mutations together. The proband's mother and brother had deep venous thrombosis (DVT). The proband's brother, sister, nephew, daughter, and two granddaughters were homozygous for the C677T MTHFR mutation. The proband's brother was heterozygous for the G20210A prothrombin gene mutation. The proband's niece was heterozygous for the G20210A prothrombin gene mutation, homozygous for the C677T MTHFR mutation, homozygous for the hypofibrinolytic 4G polymorphism of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene, and heterozygous for the platelet glycoprotein IIIa P1A1/A2 polymorphism. Of 238 normal controls, none had the niece's combination of 4 gene mutations. When ERT-mediated thrombophilia was superimposed on the proband's heritable thrombophilias, unilateral ischemic optic neuropathy developed, her tenth thrombotic event over a 5 decade period. When estrogen-progestin oral contraceptives were given to the proband's niece, she had an ischemic stroke at age 22. Exogenous estrogen-mediated thrombophilia superimposed on heritable thrombophilia and hypofibrinolysis is associated with arterial and venous thrombi, and appears to be a preventable, and potentially reversible etiology for ischemic optic neuropathy and ischemic stroke.
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ranking = 0.33550432583557
keywords = thrombosis, venous thrombosis, deep
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4/17. Intracranial venous thrombosis associated with severe antithrombin-III deficiency in pregnancy.

    We report a patient with intracranial venous thrombosis in the third trimester of pregnancy associated with severe antithrombin-III deficiency. The evaluation of protein c, protein s and antithrombin-III levels in patients with thrombotic events during pregnancy may reveal the specific cause of the thrombotic event and thereby influence patient management
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ranking = 1.6715595541549
keywords = thrombosis, venous thrombosis
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5/17. Patent foramen ovale complicated by paradoxical embolism and brain infarct in a patient with advanced ovarian cancer.

    BACKGROUND: Recent investigations of patients with cerebral and peripheral arterial emboli of unknown cause suggest that paradoxical embolism through a patent foramen ovale might be responsible for more arterial embolic events than previously realized. CASE: A 60-year-old woman with advanced ovarian cancer presented with sudden onset of expressive aphasia and right upper hemiplegia postoperatively. A patent foramen ovale diagnosed by echocardiography with contrast combined with the presence of thrombosis in her right femoral vein leads us to speculate that her stroke was secondary to a paradoxical embolism. CONCLUSION: Paradoxical embolism should be considered in the differential diagnosis of ovarian cancer patients with embolic stroke and it may be appropriate to include a cardiac echo as part of the diagnostic evaluation.
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ranking = 0.20118544013285
keywords = thrombosis, vein
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6/17. Haemorrhagic venous infarction following the posterior petrosal approach for acoustic neurinoma surgery: a report of two cases.

    The authors report two surgical cases with acoustic neurinoma in which haemorrhagic infarction occurred via a compromise in cerebral deep venous outflow. In both cases, surgery was performed via the posterior petrosal approach, and the neurinomas were completely removed. In the first case, the haemorrhagic infarction was considered to have resulted from transection of the tentorial sinus, the presence of which had not been predictable by preoperative angiography. In the second case, the haemorrhagic infarction was caused by a coagulation of the petrosal vein, which was firmly adherent to a tumour. With the posterior petrosal approach, meticulous care is necessary to preserve the deep anastomotic veins into and around the cerebellar tentorium. Thereby, catastrophic morbidity related to compromised deep cerebral venous outflow can be avoided.
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ranking = 0.0059481252794488
keywords = deep, vein
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7/17. Thalamic venous infarction as a cause of subacute dementia.

    The clinical picture of deep cerebral vein thromboses (DCVT) usually is acute, combining vigilance disorders, headaches, and focal neurologic deficit. The authors describe a patient who presented with isolated subacute dementia as the sole manifestation of DCVT. In the setting of subacute cognitive deficit, the diagnosis of DCVT must be considered when neuroimaging shows bilateral thalamic changes. Enhanced venous MR angiography is the noninvasive method of choice to ascertain the diagnosis.
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ranking = 0.0023778551374323
keywords = deep, vein
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8/17. Comparison of 1.5 and 8 tesla high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging of lacunar infarcts.

    PURPOSE: We present a case report comparing 1.5 fast spin-echo (FSE) and high-resolution 8 Tesla (T) gradient echo (GE) MRI of a patient with multiple lacunar infarcts. methods: A 51-year-old man with a history of previous lacunar infarctions was studied with two-dimensional Fourier transform axial 8 T GE MRI using the following parameters: 3 mm thick slices skip 3 mm, flip-angle approximately 20 degrees, TR 800 milliseconds, TE 12 milliseconds, 1024 x 1024 matrix, field of view (FOV) 20 cm, and bandwidth 50 kHz. These images were then compared with routine clinical 1.5 T T2-weighted FSE images with 5 mm thick sections, 256 x 256, FOV 20, TR 5650, TE 102, and 16 echo train length. RESULTS: The majority of the infarctions were seen as areas of high signal intensity on both the 1.5 and 8 T images. They were seen in the corona radiata or the basal ganglia. More lesions were seen on the 8 T images. Low intensity signal was best demonstrated on the 8 T images at segments of the periphery of a few of the larger infarcts. There were a few small punctate low signal intensity regions localized at the termination of some of the microvessels on the 8 T images only. The foci of decreased signal intensity in regions of chronic hemorrhage appeared larger on the 8 T images compared with the 1.5 T images. The 8 T images demonstrated direct visualization of many small vessels, primarily in the deep white matter, which were not visible on the 1.5 T images. On the 8 T images, some of the infarcts appeared to be located between the medullary veins of the deep white matter. CONCLUSION: This case report indicates that GE 8 T images demonstrate more infarctions compared with the FSE 1.5 T images. It is possible to simultaneously identify the microvessels of the brain, small foci of hemorrhage, and lacunar infarctions using 8 T MRI.
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ranking = 0.0035702701420165
keywords = deep, vein
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9/17. Neuropsychological manifestations in a case of bilateral thalamic infarction.

    Neuropsychological manifestation has been reported with lesions of the anterior and non-specific thalamic nuclei and mammilothalamic tract (MMT). These have been reported in the setting of arterial infarction and/or haemorrhage. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVT) is a rare cause of brain infarction. It occurs in the setting of oral contraceptive administration or pregnancy. Inherited thrombophilias are documented risk factors. The most frequent being heterozygous factor v Leiden mutation. We report a single case of bilateral thalamic infarction due to cerebral vein and sinus thrombosis. Clinically the case manifested with memory impairment and dysexecutive symptoms. Predisposing factor for venous thrombosis was a homozygous factor v Leiden mutation. The patient was treated with anticoagulation and made a good recovery.
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ranking = 0.73549735096383
keywords = thrombosis, venous thrombosis, vein
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10/17. Venous infarction resulting from sacrifice of a bridging vein during clipping of a cerebral aneurysm: preoperative evaluation using three-dimensional computed tomography angiography--case report.

    A 67-year-old woman presented with a ruptured aneurysm of the left internal carotid artery bifurcation. Three-dimensional computed tomography angiography (3D-CTA) demonstrated the first segment of the basal vein of Rosenthal passing in front of the internal carotid artery and the anastomosis with the cavernous sinus, the partially hypoplastic second segment, and the superficial sylvian vein entering the lateral side of the sphenoparietal sinus. dissection of the sylvian fissure toward the distal direction enabled transfer of the superficial sylvian vein to the temporal side, but the bridging vein had to be sacrificed to secure adequate operating space. Postoperative CT demonstrated hemorrhagic infarction at the left caudate head and surrounding region. Postoperative venous infarction is not an uncommon complication of various approaches. 3D-CTA can provide important information about the venous anatomy indispensable for avoiding postoperative venous infarction.
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ranking = 0.0094835210627856
keywords = vein
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