Cases reported "Brain Injuries"

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1/102. bereavement and mourning in pediatric rehabilitation settings.

    Developmental changes in children's acquisition of death concepts and in their emotional reactions are reviewed. Moderating variables that may affect the nature of grieving processes after parental or sibling death are discussed, including circumstances of the loss, prior experience with death, and the child's cognitive functioning. Pragmatic issues (such as when and how to inform children of parental or sibling death) regarding bereavement and mourning in children with acquired brain injuries are reviewed and illustrated by means of case studies. Special challenges to rehabilitation professionals who must deal with these issues (including the concurrent treatment of secondary losses, cognitive deficits, and organic personality changes) are discussed.
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ranking = 1
keywords = death
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2/102. Death due to concussion and alcohol.

    We encountered 5 deaths following blunt trauma to the face and head in which the injuries were predominantly soft tissue in nature with absence of skull fractures, intracranial bleeding, or detectable injury to the brain. All individuals were intoxicated, with blood ethanol levels ranging from 0.22 to 0.33 g/dl. We feel that in these deaths, ethanol augmentation of the effects of concussive brain injury, with resultant posttraumatic apnea, was the mechanism of death.
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ranking = 0.75
keywords = death
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3/102. resuscitation of the multitrauma patient with head injury.

    head injury remains the leading cause of death from trauma. The definitive method for eliminating preventable death from traumatic brain injury remains elusive. New research underscores the danger of inadequate or inappropriate support of oxygenation, ventilation, and perfusion to cerebral tissues. The belief that sensitivity to hypotension makes the patient with head injury fundamentally different is critical to nursing strategies. The conventional concept that fluid restriction decreases cerebral edema in patients with head injury must be weighed against mounting evidence that aggressive hemodynamic support decreases the incidence of subsequent organ system failure and secondary brain injury. New evidence has triggered a scrutiny of conventional interventions. A search for optimal treatments based on prospective randomized trials will continue. Development of neuroprotective drugs and use of hypertonic saline may be on the horizon. In an effort to ensure optimal outcome, contemporary trauma nursing must embrace new concepts, shed outmoded therapy, and ensure compliance with the basic tenets of critical care for the multitrauma patient with head injury.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = death
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4/102. life-threatening nail gun injuries.

    The use of pneumatic and explosive cartridge-activated nail guns is common in the construction industry. The ease and speed of nailing these tools afford enhance productivity at the cost of increased potential for traumatic injury. Although extremity injuries are most common, life-threatening injuries to the head, neck, chest, or abdomen and pelvis may occur. During a 20-month period, eight potentially life-threatening nail gun injuries were admitted to a Level I trauma center, including injuries to the brain, eye, neck, heart, lung, and femoral artery. Mechanism of injury included nail ricochet, nail gun misuse due to inadequate training, and successful suicide. Nail guns have significant potential for causing severe debilitating injury and death. These findings indicate a need for improved safety features and user education. The various types of nail guns, their ballistic potential, and techniques for operative management are discussed.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = death
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5/102. Marked regional heterogeneity in venous oxygen saturation in severe head injury studied by superselective intracranial venous sampling: case report.

    OBJECTIVE: Continuous monitoring of jugular venous oxygen saturation (SjvO2) is useful in the management of severe head injury. Abnormally high SjvO2 values can be caused by increased cerebral blood flow, decreased cerebral metabolism, brain death, contamination from extracerebral venous blood, or traumatic arteriovenous fistula. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 20-year-old man with severe head injury was diagnosed to have a traumatic dural carotid-cavernous sinus fistula on the day of trauma. Continuous left SjvO2 monitoring from Days 4 to 12 revealed oxygen saturation ranging between 85 and 98%. INTERVENTION: Superselective intracranial and extracranial venous sampling on Day 5 demonstrated marked regional heterogeneity in venous oxygen saturation as follows: superior sagittal sinus, 95 to 97%; straight sinus, 88%; right transverse sinus, 94%; left transverse sinus, 74%; right SjvO2, 95%; left SjvO2, 89%; the basilar plexus, 99%; right internal jugular vein, 98%; the left internal jugular vein, 94%. Extremely high oxygen saturation in the superior sagittal sinus and basilar plexus was attributed to severe brain damage and carotid-cavernous sinus fistula, respectively. CONCLUSION: Although jugular bulb oximetry is useful in the management of severe head injury, high oxygen saturation values should be interpreted with caution because they cannot show the intracranial heterogeneity of venous oxygen saturation.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = death
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6/102. Crossbow suicide: mechanisms of injury and neuropathologic findings.

    Crossbow injuries are rarely reported events in modern times. Two cases of death due to self-inflicted crossbow injuries to the head are reported in 2 men aged 18 and 27 years, respectively. Despite relatively low velocity and concussive force, the sharpness and propulsion force of crossbow bolts may be sufficient to enable penetration of the skull at short range. Due to the relatively low concussive force of the crossbow bolt, however, death may not be instantaneous but may occur from intraparenchymal cerebral damage sometime thereafter. Detailed neuropathologic evaluation of such cases may therefore demonstrate "red cell" hypoxic injury, as well as axonal injury, not limited to the region of the missile tract, but widely distributed, even to the point of extensive brain stem involvement. These changes may result from primary mechanical deformation at the time of injury, from secondary hypoxic damage, or from a combination of both factors. Immunohistochemical staining of brains for amyloid precursor protein to delineate more clearly the pattern of axonal damage may assist in determining the extent of injury in such cases.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = death
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7/102. Multiple self-inflicted gunshot wounds to the head: report of a case and review of the literature.

    Multiple self-inflicted gunshot wounds to the head are rare and usually present a challenge to the pathologist and to the police in determining the manner of death. We report a case of two suicidal gunshot wounds to the head. The literature is reviewed, and the pertinent findings, including location of the wounds, location of the brain injuries, types of weapons used, and criteria important to determine the manner of death, are discussed.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = death
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8/102. Unique electroencephalographic change of acute encephalopathy in glutaric aciduria type 1.

    We report the peculiar serial electroencephalographic (EEG) findings in a 7-year-old boy with glutaric aciduria type 1 during an episode of acute encephalopathy. The patient developed Reye-like syndrome triggered by cellulitis. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated diffuse softening of cerebral hemisphere. The EEG on the day following onset of acute encephalopathy showed suppression burst pattern including continuous 14-15 Hz rhythmic waves at first. Then, periodic synchronous discharge appeared and lasted for about 40 minutes. Periodic synchronous discharge finally disappeared and nearly total electrocerebral silence continued. There have been no reports indicating such a change of EEG in a short period. The serial EEG changes probably reflect the process of electrical death of neurons in cerebral hemispheres.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = death
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9/102. Brain injury after survived gunshot to the head: reactive alterations at sites remote from the missile track.

    Gunshot wounds to the brain usually lead to acute respiratory arrest or death after a brief survival period, even in cases involving only slight direct tissue damage. It can be assumed therefore that the damage extends beyond the zone of recognizable destruction and hemorrhages. To determine the true extent of the tissue injury resulting from gunshot wounds to the brain, we carried out microscopic investigations for reactive changes (emigration of leukocytes and macrophages, axonal expression of beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP) in 10 cases of gunshot wound to the narrow channel of the brain with survival times >2h. Demonstration of leukocytes expressing naphthol AS-D chloroacetate esterase activity in the brain tissue at the border of the missile track established the vitality of the gunshot effect. The presence of macrophages (CD68-epitope) allowed demarcation of a 1-2mm wide necrotic zone around the permanent cavity. Within this zone and beyond, beta-APP showed an initial increase followed by a decline in the number of injured axons. Three types of beta-APP positive staining could be differentiated. In the immediate vicinity of the missile track beta-APP positive neurons were present at a distance of 2-4mm from the margin of the permanent cavity (type 1) as a result of primary injured neuronal tissue by the gunshot itself. At longer distances from the narrow channel and the permanent cavity single beta-APP positive axons or axon fragments and two additional types were found; type 2 shows a parallel, wave-like arrangement of the damaged fibers, which suggests that the injury was produced by mechanical acceleration of the brain tissue created by the energy the projectile expended within the brain; irregular aggregation of beta-APP positive axons or axon fragments within a local edema represents type 3, which may be attributed to secondary ischemia or edema.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = death
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10/102. Isolated medulla oblongata function after severe traumatic brain injury.

    The objective was to report the first pathologically confirmed case of partly functionally preserved medulla oblongata in a patient with catastrophic traumatic brain injury.A patient is described with epidural haematoma with normal breathing and blood pressure and a retained coughing reflex brought on only by catheter suctioning of the carina. Multiple contusions in the thalami and pons were found but the medulla oblongata was spared at necropsy. In conclusion, medulla oblongata function may persist despite rostrocaudal deterioration. This comatose state ("medulla man") closely mimics brain death.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = death
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