Cases reported "Brain Injuries"

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11/960. Citicoline for traumatic brain injury: report of two cases, including my own.

    Citicoline is an investigational new drug in this country that was provided on a compassionate use basis in two cases of traumatic brain injury after horseback riding accidents. While this report is primarily anecdotal, the behavioral observations in both cases suggested atypical patterns of improvement and perhaps greater recovery than might otherwise have been predicted. The side effect profile of this drug is negligible and previous experimental research has yielded positive findings for treatment after stroke and head trauma, as well as memory loss in aging. Consequently, Citicoline may potentially be very helpful for patients suffering traumatic brain injuries and should, in our opinion, be made available and studied further in this clinical population.
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12/960. Severe craniocerebral injury by an axe with good outcome: case report.

    We report a young patient who was operated on for a penetrating slow impact craniocerebral injury in the left frontal region caused by an axe. The patient was admitted comatose, with right hemiplegia. The blade of the axe was embedded deeply into his head. A craniectomy was carried out around the axe blade and it was removed easily. The cerebral wound was 6 cm long in horizontal plane and about 7 cm deep. Significant amount of contused and necrotic brain tissue was aspirated. The patient showed an uneventful recovery.
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13/960. Dissociative disorder after traumatic brain injury.

    Several episodes of dissociative disorder, including depersonalization and multiple personality, have been observed in a 32-year old man during a period of a few months following a mild traumatic brain injury. The psychogenic or organic aetiology of these psychiatric disorders remains undetermined. This case highlights the need to consider dissociative disorder among the possible (temporary) outcomes of a brain injury.
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14/960. Vasopressin treats the persistent feeling of coldness after brain injury.

    In this pilot study, 6 patients who complained of persisting coldness after brain injury were treated with intranasal vasopressin (DDAVP) twice daily for 1 month. Response was assessed after 1 month of treatment, DDAVP was discontinued, and response was reassessed 1 month later. Five of the 6 patients had a dramatic response to DDAVP, as soon as 1 week after initiating treatment, and no longer complained of feeling cold. Response persisted even after discontinuation of treatment. patients denied any side effects from treatment with DDAVP. The experience of persisting coldness can respond dramatically to brief treatment with intranasal DDAVP. The authors discuss possible mechanisms of action to explain this phenomenon.
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15/960. resuscitation of the multitrauma patient with head injury.

    head injury remains the leading cause of death from trauma. The definitive method for eliminating preventable death from traumatic brain injury remains elusive. New research underscores the danger of inadequate or inappropriate support of oxygenation, ventilation, and perfusion to cerebral tissues. The belief that sensitivity to hypotension makes the patient with head injury fundamentally different is critical to nursing strategies. The conventional concept that fluid restriction decreases cerebral edema in patients with head injury must be weighed against mounting evidence that aggressive hemodynamic support decreases the incidence of subsequent organ system failure and secondary brain injury. New evidence has triggered a scrutiny of conventional interventions. A search for optimal treatments based on prospective randomized trials will continue. Development of neuroprotective drugs and use of hypertonic saline may be on the horizon. In an effort to ensure optimal outcome, contemporary trauma nursing must embrace new concepts, shed outmoded therapy, and ensure compliance with the basic tenets of critical care for the multitrauma patient with head injury.
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16/960. Transitions to independent living after ABI.

    One of the most challenging questions facing service providers and policy makers alike is the appropriate level of supervision for adults living in the community following a brain injury. In a 3-year province-wide study of people entering the community following brain injury rehabilitation, four individuals (out of 22 studied) made a transition from fully supervised living to lower levels of formal supervision during their first year in the community. The present study seeks to provide more information about these four individuals, the factors that allowed them to move to lower levels of supervision, and the perceived success of that transition. For each participant, the interviews conducted over the 1 year period in the initial study were reviewed in detail for information about independent living. In addition, each participant was interviewed again for this study, along with his significant other and three of the community programme staff who were most closely involved with his transition. To summarize, factors most salient in the success of transition included: (1) Roles and relationships of family and programme personnel; (2) staying away from drugs and alcohol; (3) availability of structured daily activities, including productive activity or community programme; (4) financial management; and (5) emotion and behaviour self-control. Secondary themes related to successful community living also included the availability of transportation and prior experience with community living since the onset of brain injury. These results offer the experience of four individuals in moving towards independent living. As such, they provide a starting point for further discussions of the process of supporting individuals to pursue the ultimate goal of independent living.
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17/960. Self awareness: effects of feedback and review on verbal self reports and remembering following brain injury.

    Brain injury may produce impairments in self awareness. The magnitude of impairment is often determined by comparing patient self reports with self reports of others (report-report) or with patient performance (report-performance). This paper presents data on the pattern of a self-awareness deficit in memory functioning exhibited by a brain injury survivor 5 years post-injury. The effects of practice and feedback on reporting-recall differences was examined using single case methodology. Several prospective and retrospective self reports were obtained, to allow an examination of reporting about past or future recall. Results showed that recall improved and the magnitude of report-recall differences were reduced with practice and feedback.
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18/960. Effects of blood glucose levels on performance in activities of daily living: a case example of a diabetic man with an acquired brain injury.

    Dysfunctional blood glucose regulation and sequelae of acquired brain injury (ABI) can affect behavioural training in brain injury rehabilitation. The relationship is examined between blood glucose levels and performance in three activities of daily living (ADL) skills (showering, toileting, and dressing) in a 21-year-old male with ABI and Type I diabetes mellitus. Multiple daily glucometer readings were obtained both pre- and post-treatment. Skills training involved graduated prompting and reinforcement to develop independence in ADLs. Assessment and teaching occurred initially in hospital, and then was presented at home. Results show a strong negative relationship between daily fluctuations in blood glucose levels and performance; no relationship was found between daily mean levels and performance. Implications for treatment approaches for diabetic individuals with ABI are discussed.
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19/960. Rapid evaluation of S-100 serum levels. Case report and comparison to previous results.

    The aim of this case report is to describe the time course of S-100 serum levels of a patient, after severe head injury, whose blood sample could be drawn very soon after injury. The results were compared to a group of patients in which a correlation between S-100 serum levels and outcome after traumatic brain injury could be demonstrated. Blood samples were taken on admission (mean 2.3 hours), 6, 12 and 24 hours after trauma and then every 24 hours up until and including the fifth day. The outcome was estimated on discharge using the glasgow outcome scale. The S-100 serum level of the patient described in the case report with a favourable outcome had initially risen to 10.0 micrograms/l and showed a rapid decline. In the previous group, patients with unfavourable outcome had a S-100 serum level of 7 micrograms/l mean concerning the first probe (after 2.3 hours mean) compared to 1.5 micrograms/l mean (after 2.23 hours mean) in patients with favourable outcome (p < 0.05). In comparison to the literature, there seems to be differences regarding the enzyme liberation in stroke and head injury. Therefore, S-100 serum levels need to be interpreted with regard to collection time and underlying pathology.
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20/960. Real-time continuous visual biofeedback in the treatment of speech breathing disorders following childhood traumatic brain injury: report of one case.

    The efficacy of traditional and physiological biofeedback methods for modifying abnormal speech breathing patterns was investigated in a child with persistent dysarthria following severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). An A-B-A-B single-subject experimental research design was utilized to provide the subject with two exclusive periods of therapy for speech breathing, based on traditional therapy techniques and physiological biofeedback methods, respectively. Traditional therapy techniques included establishing optimal posture for speech breathing, explanation of the movement of the respiratory muscles, and a hierarchy of non-speech and speech tasks focusing on establishing an appropriate level of sub-glottal air pressure, and improving the subject's control of inhalation and exhalation. The biofeedback phase of therapy utilized variable inductance plethysmography (or Respitrace) to provide real-time, continuous visual biofeedback of ribcage circumference during breathing. As in traditional therapy, a hierarchy of non-speech and speech tasks were devised to improve the subject's control of his respiratory pattern. Throughout the project, the subject's respiratory support for speech was assessed both instrumentally and perceptually. Instrumental assessment included kinematic and spirometric measures, and perceptual assessment included the Frenchay dysarthria Assessment, Assessment of Intelligibility of Dysarthric speech, and analysis of a speech sample. The results of the study demonstrated that real-time continuous visual biofeedback techniques for modifying speech breathing patterns were not only effective, but superior to the traditional therapy techniques for modifying abnormal speech breathing patterns in a child with persistent dysarthria following severe TBI. These results show that physiological biofeedback techniques are potentially useful clinical tools for the remediation of speech breathing impairment in the paediatric dysarthric population.
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