Cases reported "Brain Injuries"

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1/4. Non-pharmacological management of psychiatric disturbances after traumatic brain injury.

    persons who suffer traumatic brain injury (TBI) often demonstrate a variety of psychiatric and neuropsychiatric disturbances. Some of those disturbances may be managed by non-pharmacological methods. The methods draw heavily on established principles of psychotherapy and behavioral modification. However, the unique problems imposed by neurocognitive deficits must be factored into any form of non-pharmacological intervention with this patient group. A simple model consolidates information about the important ingredients in the non-pharmacological management of psychiatric disturbances in TBI patients.
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ranking = 1
keywords = psychotherapy
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2/4. Applied psychophysiology, clinical biofeedback, and rehabilitation neuropsychology: a case study--mild traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder.

    This article presents a case study of a 39-year-old European American married woman with a history of child and adolescent incest,marital rape, and physical abuse from her husband for more than 10 years. She was referred to a pain clinic for treatment of headaches and Tourette's syndrome. The client was evaluated with the Ackerman-Banks Neuropsychological rehabilitation Battery to identify neuropsychological strengths and weaknesses. The Vulnerability to Stress Audit was used to identify life events that were positively and negatively influencing her life. The client was treated for mild traumatic brain injury, post-traumatic stress disorder,cognitive difficulties, impulsivity, confabulation, low frustration tolerance, and inability to evaluate and make decisions about socially appropriate behaviors. Treatment involved traditional psychotherapy, hypnosis, cognitive rehabilitation, biofeedback training, electromyography, finger temperature, and blood pressure.
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ranking = 1
keywords = psychotherapy
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3/4. anger management training for brain injured patients and their family members.

    anger dyscontrol is a common occurrence after brain injury. The anger problems of brain injured persons create a burden for their caretakers who most frequently are their family members. Two single-case design studies are presented that demonstrate the efficacy of behavioral interventions for the control of anger problems in brain injured adults. anger control was accomplished by training the patients in skills to control their own anger, and teaching family members behavior modification principles. In each case, the patient was taught to implement a self-talk method to decrease tension during the escalation period of an anger episode and to execute a time-out when aware of increased anger. family members were trained in ways to monitor such problems and to identify antecedents to an outburst. They were given feedback and suggestions to modify their communication style with the patient so as to reduce patient irritability, and were taught ways to use a verbal cue to remind the patient to use pretrained self-control methods. patients and family members were also asked to increase the number of pleasant events in which they engaged as a general means to decrease the patients' anger outbursts. These cases showed evidence that the treatment program reduced the frequency of anger outbursts and, in one case, increased the social participation by the patient immediately after treatment and at one-month and three-month follow-up assessments. The importance of having key family members involved in anger management training for brain injured patients is underscored, particularly when cognitive impairment limits patients' ability to benefit from and to retain the content of psychotherapy.
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ranking = 1
keywords = psychotherapy
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4/4. Behavioural psychotherapy of the frontal-lobe-injured patient in an outpatient setting.

    We present two cases of outpatient behavioural psychotherapy of frontal-lobe brain-injured adults. Unlike inpatient treatment of severely frontal-injured patients in which the hospital setting acts on the patient to modify behaviour, outpatient treatment teaches the self-motivated individual to use the structure and directiveness of behavioural psychotherapy to overcome his or her neuropsychological deficits. The literature describes two types of frontal syndromes: disinhibition and adynamia. Treatment of both types of syndromes is illustrated using case presentations. The therapeutic interventions for both syndromes are designed to exaggerate the link between stimulus and response to counter impaired processing of feedback. A six-stage behavioural psychotherapy model of the frontal-injured patient is outlined.
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ranking = 7
keywords = psychotherapy
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