Cases reported "Brain Injuries"

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1/153. Parkinson's syndrome after closed head injury: a single case report.

    A 36 year old man, who sustained a skull fracture in 1984, was unconscious for 24 hours, and developed signs of Parkinson's syndrome 6 weeks after the injury. When assessed in 1995, neuroimaging disclosed a cerebral infarction due to trauma involving the left caudate and lenticular nucleus. Parkinson's syndrome was predominantly right sided, slowly progressive, and unresponsive to levodopa therapy. reaction time tests showed slowness of movement initiation and execution with both hands, particularly the right. Recording of movement related cortical potentials suggested bilateral deficits in movement preparation. Neuropsychological assessment disclosed no evidence of major deficits on tests assessing executive function or working memory, with the exception of selective impairments on the Stroop and on a test of self ordered random number sequences. There was evidence of abulia. The results are discussed in relation to previous literature on basal ganglia lesions and the effects of damage to different points of the frontostriatal circuits.
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keywords = skull fracture, skull, fracture
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2/153. death due to concussion and alcohol.

    We encountered 5 deaths following blunt trauma to the face and head in which the injuries were predominantly soft tissue in nature with absence of skull fractures, intracranial bleeding, or detectable injury to the brain. All individuals were intoxicated, with blood ethanol levels ranging from 0.22 to 0.33 g/dl. We feel that in these deaths, ethanol augmentation of the effects of concussive brain injury, with resultant posttraumatic apnea, was the mechanism of death.
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ranking = 1
keywords = skull fracture, skull, fracture
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3/153. Post-traumatic brain stem distortion: a case report.

    BACKGROUND: Primary traumatic brain stem injury (BSI) lesions are found most frequently in the dorsal or dorsolateral midbrain, whereas distortion of the brain stem itself is exceedingly rare. CASE REPORT: We present a 20-year-old woman with a rare brain stem injury caused by a violent motor vehicle collision. magnetic resonance imaging at 2 months after injury revealed marked brain stem distortion with loss of the normal shape at the midbrain and pons, which were displaced anteriorly in association with the fracture of the clivus. Moreover, the medulla oblongata showed a loose winding configuration. At discharge about 5 months after injury, the glasgow outcome scale was severe disability. CONCLUSION: This BSI was caused by reciprocal actions of fracture of the clivus and the direct effect on the brain stem caused by acceleration or rotational forces.
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ranking = 0.01751699951494
keywords = fracture
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4/153. Dural reconstruction of a class IV calvarial burn with decellularized human dermis.

    Calvarial burns involving the brain (Class IV) are reported to be rare. They represent a treatment challenge. Wound coverage can be accomplished with serial debridement of bone and grafting over granulating tissue, local flaps and free tissue transfer. The former techniques are often not feasible in the young infant. We present a successful case of a six-week-old female patient affected of full thickness burns involving the skull and brain. The bone, dura mater and superficial brain were debrided and the defect covered with AlloDerm and split thickness grafts. The area engrafted completely and no complications or CSF leak occurred. An acellular human allogeneic dermis (AlloDerm) can be successfully used to replace dura mater in burn patients.
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ranking = 0.0090349570911014
keywords = skull
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5/153. Unilateral retinal hemorrhages in documented cases of child abuse.

    PURPOSE: To describe the occurrence of unilateral retinal hemorrhages in four cases of documented child abuse, including a case in which retinal hemorrhages were an incidental finding on routine examination. methods: case reports. RESULTS: Three children, 5 to 17 months of age, with suspected child abuse had fundus examinations with a dilated pupil as part of their evaluation. An additional child, 6 months of age, received fundus examination with a dilated pupil as part of follow-up for regressed retinopathy of prematurity. Each of the four children had extensive retinal or preretinal hemorrhages in one eye only. Three of the four had ecchymoses on the ipsilateral face or neck. Two had evidence of bone fractures on skeletal surveys. All four had neuroimaging that documented cerebral hemorrhage or infarct. In all four cases an adult caretaker was found responsible for shaking, choking, or squeezing the child. One child died. Two had resolution of retinal hemorrhage, whereas one required vitrectomy. All three had at least partial recovery of vision in the affected eye after amblyopia treatment. CONCLUSION: In cases of documented child abuse, unilateral retinal or preretinal hemorrhages may be present. Ophthalmologists should recognize that unilateral retinal or preretinal hemorrhages may be associated with child abuse.
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ranking = 0.0087584997574701
keywords = fracture
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6/153. Crossbow suicide: mechanisms of injury and neuropathologic findings.

    Crossbow injuries are rarely reported events in modern times. Two cases of death due to self-inflicted crossbow injuries to the head are reported in 2 men aged 18 and 27 years, respectively. Despite relatively low velocity and concussive force, the sharpness and propulsion force of crossbow bolts may be sufficient to enable penetration of the skull at short range. Due to the relatively low concussive force of the crossbow bolt, however, death may not be instantaneous but may occur from intraparenchymal cerebral damage sometime thereafter. Detailed neuropathologic evaluation of such cases may therefore demonstrate "red cell" hypoxic injury, as well as axonal injury, not limited to the region of the missile tract, but widely distributed, even to the point of extensive brain stem involvement. These changes may result from primary mechanical deformation at the time of injury, from secondary hypoxic damage, or from a combination of both factors. Immunohistochemical staining of brains for amyloid precursor protein to delineate more clearly the pattern of axonal damage may assist in determining the extent of injury in such cases.
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ranking = 0.0090349570911014
keywords = skull
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7/153. Inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone after cerebral injury.

    A case has been presented in which a patient sustained a closed head injury with concomitant maxillofacial injuries; early signs of water intoxication and ISADH developed six days after injury. This disorder was corrected by restricting free water intake for six days until equilibration occurred. Successful reduction of the facial fractures was accomplished after stabilization of the patient's neurological condition and correction of her metabolic disorder. The ISADH and resulting hyponatremia have been documented in a variety of disease states including trauma to the central nervous system. Disruption or irritation to the hypothalamic-neurohypophyseal system has been proposed as the mechanism of dysfunction after cerebral injury. The results of the secretion of inappropriate amounts of ADH relative to renal function and homeostatis have been discussed. Clinical and laboratory diagnosis as well as the elective and emergency management of ISADH have been reviewed. The fact that the sequelae of this abnormal metabolic state may mimic or mask the neurological deterioration which may follow cerebral injury is significant. This may contribute to the difficulty in making a correct diagnosis and designing proper therapy. The problem is basically one of differentiating a correctable metabolic disorder from a lesion that can be fatal unless surgically removed.
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ranking = 0.0087584997574701
keywords = fracture
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8/153. radiation therapy for heterotopic ossification in a patient with traumatic brain injury.

    radiation therapy has been known to have a prophylactic effect for heterotopic ossification (HO), but until now it has not been known to have a therapeutic effect for established HO. We report a case of established HO compounded with a sudden increase in activity, that was improved with radiation therapy. A patient with traumatic brain injury had HO in both hips and thighs two months after the initial trauma. The existing level of HO activity suddenly increased seven months after the initial trauma, and was accompanied by severe pain that was refractory to indomethacin. We assumed that the pain was caused by the increased activity of HO on the basis of clinical symptoms and laboratory results. Initially, the patient received radiation therapy to the left lower extremity, with a total dose of 20 Gy in ten fractions. Next, the patient received radiation therapy at the same dosage to the right lower extremity, after which the pain and level of serum alkaline phosphatase significantly decreased. The patient experienced a mild pancytopenia as a side effect of the radiation therapy, but it was not severe enough to stop the radiation therapy, given the patient's suffering from the increased HO activity.
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ranking = 3.6881407212813E-5
keywords = compound
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9/153. Inadvertent insertion of a nasogastric tube in a patient with head trauma.

    This is a report of a 3-year-old boy with intracranial penetration of a nasogastric tube causing brain damage in the left frontal lobe. A computed tomography (CT) showed passage of the nasogastric tube via a fracture of the cribriform plate into the intracranial cavity. The tube was manually removed under antibiotic prophylaxis. The patient then underwent dural repair for rinorrhoea and was discharged in good health.
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ranking = 0.0087584997574701
keywords = fracture
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10/153. golf buggy related head injuries.

    Our department has recently managed three cases of serious head injuries resulting from falls from golf buggies. One of them sustained moderate head injury with a small cerebral contusion and skull fracture. Two of them sustained severe head injury with extensive cerebral contusions, extradural haematoma requiring craniotomy. Of the three patients, two made good recoveries whereas the third remained vegetative.We feel that instruction on the safe use of golf buggies is inadequate and should be intensified.
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ranking = 1
keywords = skull fracture, skull, fracture
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