Cases reported "Brain Injuries"

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1/133. Real-time continuous visual biofeedback in the treatment of speech breathing disorders following childhood traumatic brain injury: report of one case.

    The efficacy of traditional and physiological biofeedback methods for modifying abnormal speech breathing patterns was investigated in a child with persistent dysarthria following severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). An A-B-A-B single-subject experimental research design was utilized to provide the subject with two exclusive periods of therapy for speech breathing, based on traditional therapy techniques and physiological biofeedback methods, respectively. Traditional therapy techniques included establishing optimal posture for speech breathing, explanation of the movement of the respiratory muscles, and a hierarchy of non-speech and speech tasks focusing on establishing an appropriate level of sub-glottal air pressure, and improving the subject's control of inhalation and exhalation. The biofeedback phase of therapy utilized variable inductance plethysmography (or Respitrace) to provide real-time, continuous visual biofeedback of ribcage circumference during breathing. As in traditional therapy, a hierarchy of non-speech and speech tasks were devised to improve the subject's control of his respiratory pattern. Throughout the project, the subject's respiratory support for speech was assessed both instrumentally and perceptually. Instrumental assessment included kinematic and spirometric measures, and perceptual assessment included the Frenchay dysarthria Assessment, Assessment of Intelligibility of Dysarthric speech, and analysis of a speech sample. The results of the study demonstrated that real-time continuous visual biofeedback techniques for modifying speech breathing patterns were not only effective, but superior to the traditional therapy techniques for modifying abnormal speech breathing patterns in a child with persistent dysarthria following severe TBI. These results show that physiological biofeedback techniques are potentially useful clinical tools for the remediation of speech breathing impairment in the paediatric dysarthric population.
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ranking = 1
keywords = visual
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2/133. Differential pupillary constriction and awareness in the absence of striate cortex.

    The fact that the pupil constricts differentially to visual stimuli in the absence of changes in light energy makes it a valuable tool for studying normal function as well as residual capacity in hemianopic subjects. When pupillometrically effective stimuli such as equiluminant gratings or coloured patches with an abrupt onset and offset are presented to the 'blind' hemifield, a hemianopic subject with damage largely restricted to striate cortex (V1) sometimes reports being 'aware' of the transient onset/offset, although without 'seeing' as such. The question addressed here is whether the pupil still responds in the condition of blindsight in its strict sense--i.e. discriminative capacity in the absence of acknowledged awareness--when stimuli are deliberately designed to eliminate awareness. This was accomplished by making stimulus onset and offset slow and gradual. The results with a well-studied hemianope, G.Y., demonstrate that there is still a pupillary constriction to isoluminant achromatic gratings and red-coloured stimuli, although reduced in size, in the absence of acknowledged awareness.
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ranking = 7.9405538605212
keywords = cortex, visual
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3/133. Fatal head injury in children: a new approach to scoring axonal and vascular damage.

    As part of a multidisciplinary study of brain damage in children fatally injured in motor vehicle accidents, a simple method to quantify and visualise the distribution and extent of injury has been developed. Vascular and axonal injury were assessed using coronal brain sections stained for haematoxylin and eosin, or reacted immunohistochemically for beta-amyloid precursor protein. Subsequent analysis was carried out using NIH Image software, and the resulting information is displayed in schematic diagrams. These summary diagrams simply and clearly show the distribution of injury in both the coronal and horizontal planes. This technique offers an advantage over previous scoring methods in that it provides both a quantitative and a visual summary of the distribution and extent of brain injury. This information can then be used to compare the injury distribution and severity with estimated impact points and acceleration data.
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ranking = 0.33333333333333
keywords = visual
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4/133. Emotional impairment after right orbitofrontal lesion in a patient without cognitive deficits.

    The present study describes a patient, M.L., with right orbitofrontal lesion, who showed no impairment on main neuropsychological tests, including those measuring frontal functions. Nevertheless, he had deeply affected emotional responses. In line with Damasio's work, the patient had lower skin conductance during the projection of a standardized set of emotional slides. Furthermore, he showed altered facial expressions to unpleasant emotions, displaying low corrugator supercilii electromyographical activity associated with reduced recall of unpleasant stimuli. During a task focusing on imagery of emotional situations, M.L.'s heart rate and skin conductance responses were affected during both pleasant and unpleasant conditions. Facial expressions to unpleasant imagery scripts were also impaired. Thus, the orbitofrontal cortex proved to play a critical role in retrieval of psychophysiological emotional patterns, particularly to unpleasant material. These results provide the first evidence that orbitofrontal lesions are associated with emotional impairment at several psychophysiological levels.
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ranking = 1.5547774387709
keywords = cortex
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5/133. Air-puff-induced facilitation of motor cortical excitability studied in patients with discrete brain lesions.

    Air-puff stimulation applied to a fingertip is known to exert a location-specific facilitatory effect on the size of the motor evoked potentials elicited in hand muscles by transcranial magnetic stimulation. In order to clarify its nature and the pathway responsible for its generation, we studied 27 patients with discrete lesions in the brain (16, 9 and 2 patients with lesions in the cerebral cortex, thalamus and brainstem, respectively). Facilitation was absent in patients with lesions affecting the primary sensorimotor area, whereas it was preserved in patients with cortical lesions that spared this area. Facilitation was abolished with thalamic lesions that totally destroyed the nucleus ventralis posterolateralis (VPL), but was preserved with lesions that at least partly spared it. Lesions of the spinothalamic tract did not impair facilitation. The size of the N20-P25 component of the somatosensory evoked potential showed a mild correlation with the amount of facilitation. The facilitation is mainly mediated by sensory inputs that ascend the dorsal column and reach the cortex through VPL. These are fed into the primary motor area via the primary sensory area, especially its anterior portion, corresponding to Brodmann areas 3 and 1 (possibly also area 2), without involving other cortical regions. The spinothalamic tract and direct thalamic inputs into the motor cortex do not contribute much to this effect. Some patients could generate voluntary movements despite the absence of the facilitatory effect. The present method will enable us to investigate in humans the function of one of the somatotopically organized sensory feedback input pathways into the motor cortex, and will be useful in monitoring ongoing finger movements during object manipulation.
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ranking = 6.2191097550837
keywords = cortex
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6/133. lipoma of the adrenal gland.

    A rare case of a lipoma of the adrenal gland is reported with a review of the literature. The tumor was incidentally found at autopsy in a 50-year-old man who died from severe head trauma after a traffic injury. At autopsy, an oval-shaped, soft yellow nodule measuring 1.1 cm in diameter was found in the right adrenal cortex. Histological examination revealed a lesion consisting of mature adipose tissue partially surrounded by a thin fibrous capsule. On serial sections there was no evidence of hematopoiesis nor of adrenal medulla cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the eighth case described in the English literature. With the increasing use and the high resolution of modern imaging techniques, these unsuspected adrenal masses may become more prevalent.
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ranking = 1.5547774387709
keywords = cortex
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7/133. Enhanced accuracy in differential diagnosis of radiation necrosis by positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance imaging coregistration: technical case report.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: To demonstrate the usefulness of positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) coregistration for differentiation of radiation necrosis and recurrent tumor in stereotactic planning. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: T1-weighted MRI scans of a 43-year-old woman revealed a contrast-enhancing lesion 4 years after open removal of a recurrent, right parieto-occipital Grade II oligodendroglioma and subsequent external radiation therapy. The suspected contrast-enhancing lesion revealed only moderate tracer uptake (1.3 times the uptake in the contralateral normal cortex) in a coregistered [11C]methionine positron emission tomographic scan. Approximately 15 mm posterior and mesial to the center of the contrast-enhancing lesion, however, an area of higher tracer uptake was found (1.8 times that of the contralateral normal cortex), which exhibited only very minor contrast enhancement on MRI. TECHNIQUE: The coregistered images were used for planning stereotactic serial biopsies, from the contrast-enhancing lesion as well as from the area with higher methionine uptake. Histological examination demonstrated that the contrast-enhancing lesion with low methionine uptake was necrotic tissue, and the nonenhancing area with high methionine uptake was recurrent tumor. CONCLUSION: High-resolution positron emission tomography and modern coregistration techniques allow differentiation of contrast enhancement and methionine uptake in irradiated brain tissue within small areas. High methionine uptake is typical for recurrent tumor tissue and can be differentiated from minor tracer accumulation resulting from disruption of the blood-brain barrier or macrophage activity within the necrotic area.
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ranking = 3.1095548775418
keywords = cortex
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8/133. A 12-year ophthalmologic experience with the shaken baby syndrome at a regional children's hospital.

    PURPOSE: To examine the ophthalmologic experience with the shaken baby syndrome (SBS) at one medical center, including clinical findings, autopsy findings, and the visual outcome of survivors. methods: One hundred sixteen patients admitted from 1987 to 1998 for subdural hematomas of the brain secondary to abuse were included. RESULTS: Retinal hemorrhages were detected in 84% of the children, but this important finding had been missed often by nonophthalmologists. Poor visual response, poor pupillary response, and retinal hemorrhage correlated strongly with demise of the child. One child who died had pigmented retinal scars from previous abuse, a condition not previously observed histopathologically. The clinical and autopsy findings varied somewhat, probably because of the differing conditions for examination. No correlation could be made between computerized tomography scans done during life and the subdural hemorrhage of the optic nerve found on autopsy. Half of the surviving patients were known to have good vision. One fourth of the patients had poor vision, largely due to cerebral visual impairment from bilateral injury posterior to the optic chiasm. Severe neurologic impairment correlated highly with loss of vision. CONCLUSION: This series provides information on the frequency of eye findings in SBS patients. No fundus finding is pathognomonic for SBS. When retinal hemorrhages are found in young children, the likelihood that abuse occurred is very high. The difficulty that nonophthalmologists have in detecting retinal hemorrhage may be an important limiting factor in finding these children so they may be protected from further abuse.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = visual
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9/133. Impaired social response reversal. A case of 'acquired sociopathy'.

    In this study, we report a patient (J.S.) who, following trauma to the right frontal region, including the orbitofrontal cortex, presented with 'acquired sociopathy'. His behaviour was notably aberrant and marked by high levels of aggression and a callous disregard for others. A series of experimental investigations were conducted to address the cognitive dysfunction that might underpin his profoundly aberrant behaviour. His performance was contrasted with that of a second patient (C.L.A.), who also presented with a grave dysexecutive syndrome but no socially aberrant behaviour, and five inmates of Wormwood Scrubs prison with developmental psychopathy. While J.S. showed no reversal learning impairment, he presented with severe difficulty in emotional expression recognition, autonomic responding and social cognition. Unlike the comparison populations, J.S. showed impairment in: the recognition of, and autonomic responding to, angry and disgusted expressions; attributing the emotions of fear, anger and embarrassment to story protagonists; and the identification of violations of social behaviour. The findings are discussed with reference to models regarding the role of the orbitofrontal cortex in the control of aggression. It is suggested that J.S.'s impairment is due to a reduced ability to generate expectations of others' negative emotional reactions, in particular anger. In healthy individuals, these representations act to suppress behaviour that is inappropriate in specific social contexts. Moreover, it is proposed that the orbitofrontal cortex may be implicated specifically either in the generation of these expectations or the use of these expectations to suppress inappropriate behaviour.
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ranking = 4.6643323163127
keywords = cortex
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10/133. head trauma and brain tumours revisited.

    The authors report a case of an anaplastic astrocytoma which on magnetic resonance imaging and direct visualisation was continuous with an area of gliosis in the left frontal lobe. This gliosis was secondary to a head injury received 19 years earlier that required evacuation of an intracerebral haematoma. This case largely meets the accepted criteria for brain tumour associated with head trauma.
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ranking = 0.16666666666667
keywords = visual
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