Cases reported "Brain Ischemia"

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1/560. Mild hypothermia for temporary brain ischemia during cardiopulmonary support systems: report of three cases.

    Recovery without residual neurological damage after cardiac arrest with temporary cerebral ischemia is rare. Therefore, it is most important that every effort is made to prevent brain damage occurring immediately after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation. We report herein the cases of three patients who suffered either cardiogenic or hypovolemic shock and were resuscitated by a cardiopulmonary support system followed by mild hypothermia. All three patients recovered completely without any neurologic damage. The outcomes of these three patients demonstrated that mild hypothermia may be important for cerebral preservation after cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
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2/560. Bilateral subclavian steal syndrome through different paths and from different sites--a case report.

    Cases of cerebro-subclavian steal syndrome have been reported in the medical literature since 1960. This most often occurs on the left side because of the higher rate of involvement of the left subclavian artery in comparison to the other brachiocephalic branches of the aortic arch. With the use of the internal mammory artery as a conduit for coronary artery bypass, in the past three decades increasing numbers of coronary-subclavian steal in addition to the cerebro-subclavian steal have been observed. The authors report a case of bilateral subclavian steal syndrome through both vertebral arteries, the right common carotid artery, and the left internal mammory artery, without significant signs and symptoms of cerebral ischemia or anginal pain.
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3/560. Carotid endarterectomy and intracranial thrombolysis: simultaneous and staged procedures in ischemic stroke.

    PURPOSE: The feasibility and safety of combining carotid surgery and thrombolysis for occlusions of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and the middle cerebral artery (MCA), either as a simultaneous or as a staged procedure in acute ischemic strokes, was studied. methods: A nonrandomized clinical pilot study, which included patients who had severe hemispheric carotid-related ischemic strokes and acute occlusions of the MCA, was performed between January 1994 and January 1998. Exclusion criteria were cerebral coma and major infarction established by means of cerebral computed tomography scan. Clinical outcome was assessed with the modified Rankin scale. RESULTS: Carotid reconstruction and thrombolysis was performed in 14 of 845 patients (1.7%). The ICA was occluded in 11 patients; occlusions of the MCA (mainstem/major branches/distal branch) or the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) were found in 14 patients. In three of the 14 patients, thrombolysis was performed first, followed by carotid enarterectomy (CEA) after clinical improvement (6 to 21 days). In 11 of 14 patients, 0.15 to 1 mIU urokinase was administered intraoperatively, ie, emergency CEA for acute ischemic stroke (n = 5) or surgical reexploration after elective CEA complicated by perioperative intracerebral embolism (n = 6). Thirteen of 14 intracranial embolic occlusions and 10 of 11 ICA occlusions were recanalized successfully (confirmed with angiography or transcranial Doppler studies). Four patients recovered completely (Rankin 0), six patients sustained a minor stroke (Rankin 2/3), two patients had a major stroke (Rankin 4/5), and two patients died. In one patient, hemorrhagic transformation of an ischemic infarction was detectable postoperatively. CONCLUSION: Combining carotid surgery with thrombolysis (simultaneous or staged procedure) offers a new therapeutic approach in the emergency management of an acute carotid-related stroke. Its efficacy should be evaluated in interdisciplinary studies.
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4/560. factor v Leiden and antibodies against phospholipids and protein S in a young woman with recurrent thromboses and abortion.

    We describe the case of a 39-year-old woman who suffered two iliofemoral venous thromboses, a cerebral ischemic infarct and recurrent fetal loss. Initial studies showed high levels of antiphospholipid antibodies (APAs) and a moderate thrombocytopenia. After her second miscarriage, laboratory diagnosis revealed that the woman was heterozygous for the factor v Leiden mutation and had a functional protein s deficiency as well as anti-protein S and anti-beta 2-glycoprotein i antibodies. The impairment of the protein c pathway at various points could well explain the recurrent thromboses in the patient and supports the role of a disturbed protein c system in the pathophysiology of thrombosis in patients with APAs.
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5/560. Cerebral perfusion index: a new marker for clinical outcome in acute stroke.

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound are of good prognostic value in acute stroke, and combined they may be an accurate way to determine a target group of patients with maximum therapeutic response. Seventy consecutive patients were studied (42 with middle cerebral artery strokes, 18 with transient ischemic attacks {TIAs}; 10 were excluded due to failure of insonation). Two SPECT studies were performed at 2.1 /- 1.2 and 13.8 /- 3.1 days after onset. Serial TCD studies were done at 10 hours and at the time of the SPECT studies. Neurological deficit was scored on admission and 2 weeks later (using the Canadian Neurological Scale). Cerebral perfusion index (CPI) was derived by multiplying the values for TCD and SPECT patterns. Positive correlation was obtained in all 16 patients in whom cerebral angiography was performed within the first 3 days after onset. The occlusive TCD pattern and absence of perfusion on SPECT were common in the stroke group (19/42 patients) and were never seen in those with TIAs. A normal TCD pattern and normal perfusion on SPECT were more common in the patients with TIAs (9/18 vs 8/42, p = 0.02; 5/10 vs 1/40, p = 0.0003). The occlusive TCD and SPECT patterns were associated with the highest mean infarction volume (147 /- 87 vs 19 /- 21, p less than 0.0001) and all nonocclusive TCD and SPECT patterns were associated with the better short-term outcome (43.2 /- 33.9 vs 92.4 /- 20.2, p less than 0.0001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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6/560. Morphological changes after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty.

    BACKGROUND: Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) dilates constricted arteries at the circle of willis to reverse cerebral ischemia caused by cerebral vasospasm. Although 90% of the patients show angiographic improvement after PTA, only 70% show clinical improvement. Why some patients do not improve after PTA is unknown. We report on a 48-year-old woman who failed to improve after PTA and died from aneurysm rerupture. Pathologic studies were performed to determine why PTA failed to reverse the symptoms of cerebral ischemia. methods: The arteries of the brain were studied by light microscopy using Gomori's trichrome stain. The arteries were also studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: The arteries that were dilated with PTA showed compression of the connective tissue, stretching of the internal elastic lamina, and a combination of compression and stretching of the smooth muscle. The small arteries and arterioles that had been treated with an infusion of intraarterial papaverine were constricted with a thickened intimal layer. CONCLUSION: The persistence of cerebral vasospasm in small and perforating arteries may contribute to the failure of cerebral ischemia to reverse after PTA.
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7/560. Reversible cerebral ischemia in patients with pheochromocytoma.

    Cerebral ischemia and symptoms of stroke can occur as a rare manifestation in patients with pheochromocytoma. We describe a 45-year-old woman who was admitted because of a right-sided hemiparesis due to an ischemic lesion in the left hypothalamus. The clinical diagnosis of a pheochromocytoma was proven by highly elevated urinary catecholamines and confirmed histologically after operation. The successful removal of the tumor led to the almost complete recovery of the neurological deficiencies. It is of vital importance to know this atypical presentation of pheochromocytoma. The diagnosis of pheochromocytoma should be suspected in patients with focal cerebral symptoms, particularly in the presence of intermittent hypertension or other paroxysmal symptoms suggestive of pheochromocytoma.
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8/560. diffusion- and perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in deep cerebral venous thrombosis.

    BACKGROUND: diffusion-weighted (DWI) and perfusion-weighted (PI) MRI are highly sensitive techniques for early diagnosis of arterial infarction, but little data on venous cerebral ischemia are available. We describe a case in which DWI, PI, and fast T2-weighted sequences were performed in the acute phase of deep cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT). CASE DESCRIPTION: An 11-year-old girl with Crohn's disease developed deep CVT in which extensive edema was shown in the deep gray matter on T2-weighted sequence images. Isotropic echo-planar DWI demonstrated a local augmentation of the apparent diffusion coefficient (1.1 to 1.6x10(-3) mm2/s), consistent with vasogenic edema. In dynamic contrast-enhanced PI, the regional cerebral blood volume was increased and the passage time of the contrast bolus was markedly prolonged. Clinically, the patient recovered totally after intravenous full-dose heparinization. T2 abnormalities, apparent diffusion coefficient values (0.8 to 0.92x10(-3) mm2/s), and brain perfusion alterations resolved without damage to brain tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Unlike arterial infarction, DWI demonstrated vasogenic edema in a patient with deep CVT, which proved to be reversible in follow-up magnetic resonance imaging. PI showed areas with extensive venous congestion, but perfusion deficits were missing. Therefore, we believe that DWI and PI may play a role in detecting venous congestion in CVT and in prospective differentiation of vasogenic edema and venous infarction.
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9/560. Cerebrovascular disease in neonates. Evaluation of four cases.

    The clinical and neurological study in four neonates infants with cerebral infarction are reported. The purpose of this study is to call attention for the clinical course, cranial ultrasound, computed tomography and laboratories tests, in order to evaluate the neurological sequelae. A careful evaluation has be taken in order to determine the significance of clinical and laboratory tests for syndromic, topographic and etiologic diagnosis after one year ambulatorial follow-up.
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10/560. diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging: detection of ischemic injury 39 minutes after onset in a stroke patient.

    A neurologist witnessed the in-hospital onset of an ischemic stroke in a 71-year-old right-handed male who suddenly developed global aphasia and right hemiplegia. diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) 39 minutes after the ictus demonstrated high signals in the left internal carotid artery territory. T1- and T2-weighted images failed to detect this change. magnetic resonance angiography showed occlusions in branches of the left anterior and middle cerebral arteries and an atheromatous stenotic lesion in the ipsilateral proximal internal carotid artery. The patient was treated with intravenous heparin and low molecular dextran solution. Repeated magnetic resonance imagings identified an infarction slightly smaller than the abnormality demonstrated by the initial DWI. DWI detects hyperacute ischemic injury within 1 hour of symptom onset in human ischemic stroke.
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