Cases reported "Brain Ischemia"

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1/102. Carotid endarterectomy and intracranial thrombolysis: simultaneous and staged procedures in ischemic stroke.

    PURPOSE: The feasibility and safety of combining carotid surgery and thrombolysis for occlusions of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and the middle cerebral artery (MCA), either as a simultaneous or as a staged procedure in acute ischemic strokes, was studied. methods: A nonrandomized clinical pilot study, which included patients who had severe hemispheric carotid-related ischemic strokes and acute occlusions of the MCA, was performed between January 1994 and January 1998. Exclusion criteria were cerebral coma and major infarction established by means of cerebral computed tomography scan. Clinical outcome was assessed with the modified Rankin scale. RESULTS: Carotid reconstruction and thrombolysis was performed in 14 of 845 patients (1.7%). The ICA was occluded in 11 patients; occlusions of the MCA (mainstem/major branches/distal branch) or the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) were found in 14 patients. In three of the 14 patients, thrombolysis was performed first, followed by carotid enarterectomy (CEA) after clinical improvement (6 to 21 days). In 11 of 14 patients, 0.15 to 1 mIU urokinase was administered intraoperatively, ie, emergency CEA for acute ischemic stroke (n = 5) or surgical reexploration after elective CEA complicated by perioperative intracerebral embolism (n = 6). Thirteen of 14 intracranial embolic occlusions and 10 of 11 ICA occlusions were recanalized successfully (confirmed with angiography or transcranial Doppler studies). Four patients recovered completely (Rankin 0), six patients sustained a minor stroke (Rankin 2/3), two patients had a major stroke (Rankin 4/5), and two patients died. In one patient, hemorrhagic transformation of an ischemic infarction was detectable postoperatively. CONCLUSION: Combining carotid surgery with thrombolysis (simultaneous or staged procedure) offers a new therapeutic approach in the emergency management of an acute carotid-related stroke. Its efficacy should be evaluated in interdisciplinary studies.
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2/102. An aberrant left subclavian artery aneurysm with right aortic arch: report of a case.

    The case of a 41-year-old man who developed an aneurysm in his aberrant left subclavian artery is described. The patient had a right aortic arch. After a successful aortosubclavian artery bypass, symptoms due to brain ischemia disappeared. This is a very rare disease that is sometimes associated with an aortic anomaly, therefore the optimal therapeutic procedure need to be carefully selected, including the operative indications and approach.
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3/102. Temporary occlusion of middle cerebral artery by macroembolism in carotid surgery.

    Two patients are presented who during carotid endarterectomy (CEA) temporarily showed an obstruction of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) mainstem by a macroembolus resulting in cerebral ischaemia. Both cases are unusual examples of CEA and selected from a cohort of more than 1,500 operations. During surgery with general anaesthesia, brain function was monitored with computerized electroencephalography (EEG) and transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography. The simultaneous use of EEG and TCD monitoring allowed us to witness the development of intraoperative cerebral ischaemia and to relate these events to a temporary occlusion of the MCA mainstem by a macroembolus. This is the first life report that describes obstruction of a cerebral artery by arterial embolism resulting in cerebral ischaemia.
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4/102. Ischaemic complication following obliteration of unruptured cerebral aneurysms with atherosclerotic or calcified neck.

    We report three cases of ischaemic complications following direct surgery of unruptured cerebral aneurysms having necks with atherosclerotic or calcified walls. Among 30 patients we treated directly for unruptured aneurysm over the last 4 years, 6 had 8 such aneurysms. Atherosclerotic or calcified neck was a major contributor to postoperative ischaemic sequelae in our recent series of unruptured aneurysms treated surgically, and common technical problems during surgery seemed to have caused ischaemic complications in the 3 patients reported here. In this report, attention is given to ischaemic complications in the treatment of such aneurysms.
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5/102. Late hemorrhage from persistent pseudoaneurysm in vertebral artery dissection presenting with ischemia: case report.

    BACKGROUND: vertebral artery dissection lesions tend to resolve spontaneously, but abnormal findings such as aneurysmal-dilatation occasionally persist. However, the clinical features and pathological findings in such cases have never been verified. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 62-year-old man presented with left cerebellar infarction. angiography showed the "pearl and string sign" in the left vertebral artery, and he was diagnosed as having left vertebral artery dissection. Repeated angiography showed persistent aneurysmal dilatation with irregular stenosis. Eleven years after the cerebellar infarction, the patient presented with a subarachnoid hemorrhage from an aneurysm of the left vertebral artery, and the lesion was explored via the left suboccipital approach. The vertebral artery was firm, making the placement of a clip impossible, so the lesion was treated by coating of the bleeding point. The patient died of pneumonia and hyperglycemia on postoperative day 15. Postmortem examination revealed an organized intramural hematoma, thickening of the intima, and fibrous degeneration of the media of the vertebral artery, a fusiform, distended thin arterial wall with intimal disruption at the aneurysmal dilatation, and arteriosclerosis of all cerebral arteries. CONCLUSION: This case indicates that persistent aneurysmal dilatation of a dissection is a pseudoaneurysm prone to rupture, and that healing of the affected vessels might be severely compromised in the presence of pathological conditions such as arteriosclerosis and disturbed intraluminal blood flow in the dissected lesions.
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6/102. Extracranial-intracranial bypass for ischemic cerebrovascular disease refractory to maximal medical therapy.

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the potential role of cerebral revascularization in the treatment of patients with symptomatic occlusive cerebrovascular disease refractory to medical therapy. methods: Twenty patients with symptomatic occlusive cerebrovascular disease underwent 22 extracranial-intracranial bypass procedures after failing maximal medical therapy. The average follow-up time was 3.5 years, and no patient was lost to follow-up. RESULTS: All patients presented with repeated transient ischemic attacks refractory to medical therapy. Angiographic findings included internal carotid artery occlusion in 8 patients, middle cerebral artery stenosis or occlusion in 4, moyamoya disease in 4, internal carotid artery dissection in 2, and supraclinoid internal carotid artery stenosis in 2. Outcome was excellent in 17 patients and good in 3. The only surgical complication occurred in one patient, who experienced postoperative seizures and required anticonvulsant therapy. There were no deaths in this series. CONCLUSION: Although the Cooperative Study on Extracranial-Intracranial Bypass failed to show a benefit from the bypass procedure, we have continued to perform the operation in selected cases. Carefully selected individuals with occlusive cerebrovascular disease and persistent ischemic symptoms, despite maximal medical therapy, seem to obtain demonstrable and durable benefit from cerebral revascularization.
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7/102. Postoperative stroke in a child with cerebral palsy heterozygous for factor v Leiden.

    A 5-year-old with spastic quadraparetic cerebral palsy suffered multiple strokes after extensive orthopedic surgery. Coagulation testing was undertaken to determine whether a familial thrombophilia was present. The patient was found to be heterozygous for factor v Leiden. factor v Leiden may be a risk factor for central nervous system events in special-needs children, particularly when common medical conditions create additional procoagulant risks.
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8/102. Bypass-surgery and coil-embolisation in the treatment of cerebral giant aneurysms.

    OBJECTIVE: Operative clipping is the most effective method in the treatment of cerebral giant aneurysms. But about 50% of all giant aneurysms are treatable this way. We want to report about eight patients with giant cerebral aneurysms, which were in our opinion "unclippable" without causing ischaemia in depending brain areas. methods: We describe eight cases of giant aneurysms of the pericallosal artery (n = 1) the middle cerebral artery (n = 3), the basilar tip (n = 3) and of the upper part of the basilar artery (n = 1). One patient with an aneurysm of the pericallosal artery was treated with an extra-intracranial saphenous vein bypass saphenous bypass, in three cases of middle cerebral artery aneurysms an extra-intracranial bypass was also done combined with a resection of the aneurysm. The four patients suffering from an aneurysm of the basilar artery got an extra intracranial bypass too followed by an occlusion of the aneurysm with GD-Coils. RESULTS: There was no peri-operative mortality and no severe peri- or postoperative complication. The neurological symptoms of all patients were unchanged after the operation. An angiographic control showed a complete obliteration of the aneurysm and a free running bypass in all cases. CONCLUSION: Bypass surgery and combined bypass surgery and coil embolisation are effective methods in the treatment of giant cerebral aneurysms, which can not be treated by clipping alone.
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9/102. Retrocardiac arteriovenous malformation causing recurrent cerebral ischemia.

    A 28-year-old woman had been suffering from recurrent cerebral embolizations for almost 9 years. A retrocardiac arteriovenous malformation was identified as the source of emboli. It was supplied by chest wall veins and the right upper pulmonary vein, connected to the back wall of the left atrium and a possibly aberrant hepatic vein originating from the abdomen. The aneurysm was resected and all supplying veins ligated. The vein from below the diaphragm was implanted into the right atrium. Her postoperative course was uncomplicated. Long-term follow-up free from cerebrovascular events.
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10/102. Dissecting aneurysm of the peripheral posterior inferior cerebellar artery.

    Dissecting aneurysms of intracranial posterior circulation have recently been shown to be less uncommon than previously thought. However, those involving the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (pica) and not vertebral artery at all are extremely rare. We report here a case of a patient with a dissecting aneurysm of the lateral medullary segment of pica which presented as subarachnoid haemorrhage. The aneurysm was treated by trapping surgery and the distant pica was anastomosed to the occipital artery. The patient showed a slight ataxia immediately after surgery but recovered fully. Recovery from immediately postoperative cerebellar symptoms due to intra-operative ischemia seemed to be due largely to recovery of flow in the region of cortical branches of pica.
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