Cases reported "Brain Neoplasms"

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1/418. tuberculoma of the pons.

    A case of a pontine tuberculoma in a 12-year-old male from somalia is presented. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging, performed in Abu Dhabi 1 month before admission in germany revealed a tumorous lesion in the pons with surrounding edema; a presumptive diagnosis of a pontine glioma was made. Chest radiograph disclosed a pulmonary infiltrate with cavitation, as well as hilar and left mediastinal lymphadenopathy, suggestive of active tuberculosis. Tuberculostatic therapy led to an improvement of the patient's clinical status and a significant reduction in the size of the pontine tuberculoma. Intracranial tuberculomas rarely are seen in industrialized countries. They should, however, be considered as an important part of the differential diagnosis of intracranial space-occupying lesions. In most cases, as in this patient, conservative therapy provides good or excellent results.
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2/418. Increased risk of erythema multiforme major with combination anticonvulsant and radiation therapies.

    erythema multiforme major (EMM; stevens-johnson syndrome) is a cutaneous disorder associated with a wide variety of factors including ingestion of drugs such as phenytoin and exposure to intracranial radiation therapy. Based on observations of a 47-year-old black man with brain metastases who developed EMM after combined phenytoin and radiation therapy, we conducted a medline literature search for articles on similar cases from 1966 to the present. Twenty cases were identified that support the hypothesis that EMM is associated with combined phenytoin and radiation therapy. The reaction, or its severity, has no relationship to the phenytoin or radiation therapy dosage, or to the histologic type of brain tumor. Also, EMM has no apparent age or gender predisposition in association with phenytoin-radiation therapy. Thus this is a clinical phenomenon that occurs with unusual frequency in patients with brain tumor who undergo radiation therapy while taking phenytoin. phenytoin and other anticonvulsants such as phenobarbital and carbamazepine induce cytochrome P450 3A and produce oxidative reactive intermediates that may be implicated in hypersensitivity reactions such as EMM. Both carbamazepine and barbiturates have shown cross-sensitivity with phenytoin; furthermore, a case of EMM in a patient receiving carbamazepine and whole brain radiation therapy has been reported. As carbamazepine, valproate, and barbiturates have been associated with EMM, gabapentin may be considered as alternative anticonvulsant therapy when appropriate.
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3/418. anesthesia for cesarean section in two patients with brain tumours.

    PURPOSE: To describe two patients with brain tumours where general anesthesia was used for cesarean sections under emergency and urgent conditions. CLINICAL FEATURES (CASE #1): The first patient presented at 38 wk gestation with an acute intracranial tumour herniation, requiring emergency craniotomy and simultaneous cesarean section. General anesthesia was induced with thiopental and vecuronium, maintained with enflurane 1% in O2 100%. Maternal P(ET)CO2 was maintained at 25 mmHg. After delivering a healthy infant, she was given syntocinon, mannitol and dexamethasone i.v. anesthesia was maintained with fentanyl, nitrous oxide 50% in O2 and isoflurane 1% during frontal-lobe tumour resection. CLINICAL FEATURES (CASE #2): The second patient presented at 37 wk gestation for urgent cesarean section because of placental insufficiency. She had had a brain tumour resection four years earlier. An increase in intracranial pressure necessitated craniotomy for decompression at 20 wk gestation. She was further treated with dexamethasone, carbamazepine and radiation for control of cerebral oedema at 34 wk. cesarean section was performed under general anesthesia; rapid-sequence-induction with thiopental and succinylcholine, followed by isoflurane 1% in O2 100%. Syntocinon, fentanyl and atracurium i.v. were administered after delivery of a healthy infant. Although neurosurgeons stood by, their intervention was unnecessary. CONCLUSION: General anesthesia remains safe and dependable for operative delivery in parturients with intracranial tumour. Tracheal intubation allows maternal hyperventilation thereby controlling raised intracranial pressure. Hemodynamic stability is readily achieved to maintain cerebral perfusion. However, a multidisciplinary-team approach is critical for successful patient management.
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4/418. Clinical and radiographic response in three children with recurrent malignant cerebral tumors with high-dose tamoxifen.

    The purpose of this study was to deliver tamoxifen as antiangiogenic therapy to children with recurrent progressive malignant brain tumors. tamoxifen was administered orally in very high dosage to one child as monotherapy and to two children in combination with oral etoposide and dexamethasone. One boy was diagnosed with high-grade astrocytoma in the brain stem, one girl with anaplastic ependymoma of the fourth ventricule, and one girl with high-grade astrocytoma in the midbrain. Conventional treatment with multiple surgeries, first- and second-line chemotherapy, and external beam therapy had failed. Tumor reduction was seen in radiographic images together with clinical improvement in 2 children, and clinical and radiographic halting of tumor progression was demonstrated in the patient with anaplastic ependymoma. None of the patients developed complications from the treatment. Follow up of the patients ranged from 15 to 30 months with a mean of 17 months. These encouraging preliminary results suggest a potential for this type of therapy. More studies are needed to start clinical trials and prove that angiostatic activity may contribute to the therapeutic effect of antiestrogens in estrogen receptor-negative tumors.
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5/418. Brain metastases from adenoendocrine carcinoma of the common bile duct: a case report.

    A 68-year-old man with metastatic brain tumors from adenoendocrine carcinoma of the common bile duct is reported. A common bile duct tumor and a metastatic liver tumor had been resected 6 years and 3 years prior to admission, respectively. Microscopically they showed two components; moderately differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine carcinoma. He presented with headache and vomiting and MRI revealed two metastatic brain tumors. They were successfully resected and radiotherapy was carried out. Histological diagnosis of the metastatic brain tumors was neuroendocrine carcinoma, but carbohydrate antigen (CA)-19-9 and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-immunoreactive cells were observed without glandular pattern. Immunohistochemically serotonin and pancreatic polypeptide were detected, but somatostatin was not. As the endocrine cells demonstrated in the normal extrahepatic bile ducts are only somatostatin-containing D cells, these cells are considered to originate as part of a metaplastic process. To our knowledge, this represents the second case of adenoendocrine carcinoma of the common bile duct.
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6/418. Longitudinal neuropsychological evaluation of a case of pineal tumor occurring in an adolescent girl.

    There has been a relative absence of studies that have longitudinally examined the neuropsychological profiles of patients suffering from pineal tumors. A case is reported of an adolescent girl with a pineoblastoma and spinal metastases who received extensive chemotherapy and cranio-spinal irradiation. Neuropsychological assessments conducted approximately 5 months and 2.5 years posttumor diagnosis revealed a diversity of impairments indicative of mild to moderate neuropsychological dysfunction. By the 2nd evaluation (2 years postbaseline) there was evidence of increased neurocognitive impairment suggestive of greater dysfunction of the patient's right, versus left, cerebral hemisphere. overall, the patient's neuropsychological profile coincided with the Syndrome of Nonverbal learning Disabilities as proposed by Rourke and his colleagues (Rourke, 1987, 1988, 1995; Rourke & Tsatsanis, 1996). These findings are discussed in light of the Syndrome of Nonverbal learning Disabilities (and the related white matter model) and the possible negative impact of the patient's pineal tumor and subsequent chemotherapy and cranio-spinal irradiation on her neuropsychological functioning.
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7/418. Functional neuronavigation with magnetoencephalography: outcome in 50 patients with lesions around the motor cortex.

    OBJECT: The authors conducted a study to evaluate the clinical outcome in 50 patients with lesions around the motor cortex who underwent surgery in which functional neuronavigation was performed. methods: The sensorimotor cortex was identified in all patients with the use of magnetoencephalography (MEG). The MEG-source localizations were superimposed onto a three-dimensional magnetic resonance image and the image data set was implemented into a neuronavigation system. Based on this setup, the surgeon chose the best surgical strategy. During surgery, the pre- and postcentral gyri were identified by neuronavigation and, in addition, the central sulcus was localized using intraoperative recording of somatosensory evoked potentials. In all cases MEG localizations of the sensory or motor cortex were correct. In 30% of the patients preoperative paresis improved, in 66% no additional deficits occurred, and in only 4% (two patients) deterioration of neurological function occurred. In one of these patients the deterioration was not related to the procedure. CONCLUSIONS: The method of incorporating functional data into neuronavigation systems is a promising tool that can be used in more radical surgery to lessen morbidity around eloquent brain areas.
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8/418. Fatal pulmonary embolism in a child undergoing extra-ventricular drainage surgery--a case report.

    thromboembolism is rather common in neurological patients and patients with brain tumor, who are bed-ridden or with partial immobile limb. In serious instances morbidity and mortality are inevitable. We present a case report on a fatal pulmonary embolism in a 2-year-old girl who underwent extra-ventricular drainage procedure under general anesthesia for occipital subdural effusion, a sequela of the former surgery undertaken to remove the choroid plexus papilloma 13 days ago. Sudden cardiac arrest occurred during induction of anesthesia and she finally succumbed in spite of vigorous cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography performed in the course of resuscitation disclosed thrombi of various sizes scattering in right atrium, the right ventricle, main pulmonary trunk, and the left pulmonary artery. The cause of death was thought to be severe obstruction of right ventricular outflow tract by large thrombi. The etiological factors which possibly led to the thrombosis were discussed, and the methods of diagnosis and treatment were also explored.
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9/418. Peripheral-type primitive neuroectodermal tumor arising in the tentorium. Case report.

    The authors report the case of a peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) arising in the tentorium in a 5-year-old boy who presented with frequent vomiting and mild palsy of the left abducent nerve. Following complete surgical excision of the tumor via a transpetrosal approach, the patient has thus far been disease free for 7 years. The tumor tissue was composed of small cells with uniform round nuclei and minimal identifiable cytoplasm. Homer-Wright rosettes were frequently observed. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated a positive reaction to HBA-71, which recognizes the cell surface glycoprotein p30/32, a product of the MIC2 gene. Both the clinical and immunohistochemical characteristics of this tumor are consistent with a diagnosis of peripheral PNET, which is genetically distinct from the more common intracranial PNET.
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10/418. Globular glioma of the tectum.

    Brainstem gliomas are a heterogeneous group of tumors whose prognosis and treatment depend not only on the histologic features but also on the location within the brainstem. magnetic resonance imaging allows the recognition of a distinct type of brainstem glioma of the tectal region of the midbrain, leading to aqueductal compression and hydrocephalus. The radiologic appearance of these tumors is usually rather uniform, with a characteristic nonenhancing thickening of the tectal plate. Because of its protracted course, no further treatment is necessary beyond cerebrospinal fluid diversion and close clinicoradiologic follow-up. The authors report two children with tectal plate gliomas of unusual but strikingly similar appearance. They present a clinical picture suggestive of intracranial hypertension without localizing signs. Magnetic resonance images reveal hydrocephalus related to the presence of perfectly circular lesions, hypointense on T1 and hyperintense on T2, which could be mistaken for parasitic cysts or represent dilated rostral portions of the sylvian aqueduct. After the cerebrospinal fluid diversion procedures, no further treatment was given, with one of the patients being monitored for 10 years and the other for 8 months, without tumor progression. These patients demonstrate that tectal gliomas, despite sharing a good prognosis, may have various patterns of growth, leading to unusual radiologic appearances that may pose diagnostic difficulties.
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