Cases reported "Brain Neoplasms"

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1/449. Severe ocular and orbital toxicity after intracarotid etoposide phosphate and carboplatin therapy.

    PURPOSE: To report severe ocular and orbital toxicity after administration of intracarotid etoposide phosphate and carboplatin. METHOD: Case report. RESULTS: A 52-year-old man with glioblastoma multiforme underwent left intracarotid administration of eto poside phosphate and carboplatin inferior to the ophthalmic artery. Within 7 hours, a nonpupillary block angle-closure glaucoma developed secondary to uveal effusion in the ipsilateral eye, which was relieved by cycloplegia. Four days later, severe orbital inflammation resulted in a visual acuity of counting fingers, proptosis, optic neuropathy, and total external ophthalmoplegia in the eye. The patient's condition improved after a lateral cantholysis and administration of high-dose intravenous corticosteroids. Two weeks later, an anterior uveitis occurred in the left eye, which responded to topical corticosteroids. During a 2-month period, the patient recovered to a visual acuity of 20/70, near normal motility, and normal intraocular pressure, and the ocular and orbital inflammation resolved. Preexisting ipsilateral chemotherapy-induced maculopathy became more pronounced. CONCLUSION: Ocular and orbital toxicity after intracarotid etoposide phosphate and carboplatin therapy is infrequently reported.
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2/449. Primary intracranial squamous cell carcinoma--case report.

    A 50-year-old female presented with primary intracranial squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) at the right cerebellopontine angle manifesting as right facial nerve paresis. She had undergone gross total removal of a right cerebellopontine angle epidermoid cyst 10 years before and had done well until recently. magnetic resonance imaging showed a heterogeneous tumor with markedly enhanced irregular margin. Subtotal removal of the tumor was achieved. Histological examination showed moderately differentiated SCC. After surgery, she underwent chemotherapy and gamma radiosurgery. She is now well 5 years after the diagnosis of SCC.
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3/449. Cerebral metastasis presenting with altitudinal field defect.

    A 75-year-old man presented with a unilateral inferior altitudinal visual field defect and a history of weight loss and night sweats. The acuity in the affected eye was 20/200, otherwise his ocular examination was normal. neuroimaging demonstrated a post-fixed chiasm, with a frontal metastasis compressing the intracerebral portion of the optic nerve. A chest x-ray showed classical cannon ball lesions, secondary to malignant melanoma. This is the first case report of an intracerebral tumor producing an inferior altitudinal field defect.
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4/449. Cerebral B-cell lymphoma following treatment for tolosa-hunt syndrome.

    We herein report a unique case of cerebral lymphoma which occurred after lymphocytic neuritis of cranial nerves causing tolosa-hunt syndrome and demonstrate the histological difference between these two diseases. A 70-year-old woman developed a sensory disturbance in the first and third divisions of the left trigeminal nerve and a left ocular movement disturbance five years before death. Although she was clinically diagnosed to have a schwannoma in the left cavernous sinus, a histologic examination verified a diffuse infiltration of T lymphocytes in the left trigeminal ganglion. Corticosteroid therapy was effective. Thereafter she demonstrated a disturbance of consciousness and dysphasia four years after surgery. A T1-weighted magnetic resonance image (MRI) disclosed high intensity lesions in both the basal ganglia and corpus callosum. She also showed progressive spastic paralysis. At autopsy a diagnosis of primary intracranial B-cell lymphoma was made. Although there was no invasion of the lymphoma cells into the left trigeminal nerves, a mild inflammatory infiltration of T cells still remained.
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5/449. Three AML patients with existing or pre-existing intracerebral granulocytic sarcomas who were successfully treated with allogeneic bone marrow transplantations.

    We report three acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) patients who developed intracerebral granulocytic sarcomas (GS) and were successfully treated with allogeneic BMT (allo-BMT). The diagnosis of one patient was AML M2 with myelofibrosis, and the other two patients were AML M4 with eosinophilia (AML M4 Eo), according to the FAB classification. Two patients first experienced a relapse in the brain that resulted in the formation of GS, followed by a relapse in the bone marrow. The remaining patient developed an optic nerve GS after suffering a bone marrow relapse. All three patients received irradiation for the GS and systemic chemotherapy before the allo-BMT. TBI was used for conditioning, and GVHD prophylaxis was with cyclosporine (CsA) and short-term MTX in all three cases. These patients are currently 9 to 37 months post-BMT without relapse. Thus, our experience suggests that allo-BMT is an effective treatment for AML patients with existing or pre-existing intracerebral GS.
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6/449. Application of skull base techniques to pediatric neurosurgery.

    Techniques for skull base surgery have become well established over the last 10 years. Most of these techniques are used in adult patients for skull base tumors and neurovascular diseases. There are very few large series of pediatric patients in whom skull base approaches have been used, because of the rarity of these conditions. The authors would like to present a relatively large series of 26 pediatric patients who underwent skull base approaches for tumor resection. These tumors involved the anterior cranial base in 5 patients, the medial cranial skull base in 4 patients, and the posterior cranial base in 12 cases. Five patients had tumors that involved two or more fossae. The overall complication rate was 57%, which included temporary cranial nerve palsies, CSF leak and infection. patients with permanent complications were 8 in number (37%). There was 1 postoperative death from pneumonia approximately 6 weeks after surgery. Complete tumor removal was achieved in 24 of the 26 patients. skull base tumors in children are often extensive and present significant surgical challenges. Although complete tumor extirpation is the goal in most pediatric patients, this is often achieved only with some morbidity. This paper demonstrates the effectiveness of skull base approaches for these tumors and underscores the high stakes involved.
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7/449. Malignant supratentorial ganglioglioma (ganglion cell-giant cell glioblastoma): a case report and review of the literature.

    BACKGROUND: From both epidemiologic and pathologic viewpoints, gangliogliomas exhibiting components of giant cell glioblastomas are extraordinary neoplasms. We report herein the case of a 6-year-old girl who presented initially with a World health Organization grade IV anaplastic ganglioglioma (a mixed ganglion cell tumor-giant cell glioblastoma). Despite aggressive management, the patient died of disease in a relatively short period. methods: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks were sectioned at 5 microm for histochemical and immunohistochemical analyses. hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections and immunohistochemically stained sections from the primary and secondary resections were reviewed. Reactivity for glial fibrillary acidic protein, neurofilament protein, synaptophysin, and Ki67 nuclear antigen was evaluated. RESULTS: Histologically, 2 distinct cell populations were noted on both the primary and secondary resections. The primary resection revealed a neoplasm having a predominant glial component consistent with a glioblastoma. Interspersed were dysmorphic ganglion cells supporting a diagnosis of ganglioglioma. The second resection (following therapy) demonstrated a much more prominent dysmorphic ganglion cell component and a subdued glial component. CONCLUSION: Although immunohistochemical analysis clearly distinguished the 2 tumor cell populations, the identification of Nissl substance in neurons proved to be equally helpful. Although other cases of grade III gangliogliomas and rare cases of grade IV gangliogliomas have been reported, the present case is exceptional in that, to our knowledge, it is the only report of a patient who presented initially with a composite grade IV ganglioglioma and who was clinically followed up to the time of death. This case allows direct comparison between the histologic findings in a giant cell glioblastoma and a ganglioglioma and documents the aggressive biologic behavior of this complex neoplasm.
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8/449. ependymoma of the fourth ventricle presenting with hemifacial spasm. Report of a case.

    According to Gardner's hypothesis (1962) later confirmed by Jannetta (1982, 1985), hemifacial spasm can usually be related to a "vascular conflict" which takes place inside the cerebellopontine angle (CPA). Occasionally, the causative lesion can be identified as a mass encasing the facial nerve at its root exit zone (REZ) from the brain stem. The hemifacial spasm has been rarely reported in presence of a contralateral CPA mass ("false localising sign"). hemifacial spasm in patients with masses in anatomical regions other than the CPA has to be considered exceptional. The case of an adult man harboring an ependymoma of the fourth ventricle whose only neurological sign was a left hemifacial spasm is reported. The rarity of such a condition prompted us to review the literature. Particular attention has been paid to the possible pathogenetic mechanisms and their therapeutic implications.
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9/449. Neural compressive symptoms appearing during steroid treatment in a patient with intracranial lipoma.

    Intracranial lipoma is a rare condition, and it is usually asymptomatic. We describe a 67 year old woman who developed blurred vision, diplopia, left sided oculomotor palsy, and ipsilateral ptosis during steroid treatment for giant cell arteritis. These symptoms were considered to be associated with aggressive giant cell arteritis, and the steroid dose was raised. Surprisingly, the symptoms increased, and further examination revealed an intracranial lipoma situated in the Meckel's cave. During tapering of the steroids her symptoms gradually improved. This is the first report demonstrating that steroids may induce hypertrophy of the fat tissue in the intracranial lipoma, causing compression of the cranial nerves passing through the cavernous sinus thereby mimicking the ocular symptoms sometimes associated with aggressive giant cell arteritis.
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10/449. Central neurocytoma with malignant course. Neuronal and glial differentiation and craniospinal dissemination.

    Central neurocytoma is a benign neuronal tumor of young adults in the lateral cerebral ventricles with characteristic X ray and light microscopic findings. In many respects typical central neurocytoma is reported below, with recurrence in the third month requiring reoperation. death ensued in the fifth postoperative month. Subsequent histology proved progressive vascular proliferation and increasing, unusual glial differentiation of the neuronal tumor. At autopsy tumorous seeding blocked the liquor circulation. A thin tumorous layer covered the surface of all ventricles, the cerebellum and medulla oblongata. The GFAP positive cells out-numbered the synaptophysin positive ones. Increase of GFAP positivity and vascular proliferation of the central neurocytoma may be alarming signs suggesting a malignant course in addition to the other atypical features.
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