Cases reported "Brain Neoplasms"

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1/316. Surgical management of pediatric tumor-associated epilepsy.

    brain tumors are a common cause of seizures in children. Early surgical treatment can improve seizure outcome, but controversy exists regarding the most appropriate type of surgical intervention. Some studies suggest tumor resection alone is sufficient, while others recommend mapping and resection of the surrounding epileptogenic foci to optimize seizure outcome. To address this issue, we reviewed the charts of 34 pediatric patients aged 18 months to 20 years with medically intractable epilepsy and primary brain tumors. The average age at operation was 12.6 years, and patients had seizures for an average of 6.4 years. The majority of tumors were located in the temporal lobe. Seventeen patients, because of tumor location near an eloquent area, underwent extraoperative mapping using subdural electrode grids prior to definitive tumor resection. Fourteen of these patients had a gross total tumor resection, yet only two had a distinct zone of ictal onset identified and resected. The remaining 17 patients had tumors either in the nondominant hemisphere or far removed from speech-sensitive areas, and therefore did not undergo extraoperative subdural electroencephalograph mapping. Fourteen of these patients also had a gross total tumor resection, while none had intraoperative electrocorticography to guide the resection of additional nontumoral tissue. overall, of the 28 patients treated with a gross total tumor resection, 24 (86%) are seizure free, while the other four are significantly improved. Of the six patients who had a subtotal tumor removal, five have persistent seizures. The mean follow-up was 3.6 years. We conclude that in children and adolescents, completeness of tumor resection is the most important factor in determining seizure outcome. The routine mapping and resection of epileptogenic foci might not be necessary in the majority of patients. As a corollary, the use of subdural electrode grids in pediatric patients with tumor-associated epilepsy should be limited to cases requiring extraoperative cortical stimulation for localization of nearby eloquent cortex.
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2/316. tuberculoma of the pons.

    A case of a pontine tuberculoma in a 12-year-old male from somalia is presented. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging, performed in Abu Dhabi 1 month before admission in germany revealed a tumorous lesion in the pons with surrounding edema; a presumptive diagnosis of a pontine glioma was made. Chest radiograph disclosed a pulmonary infiltrate with cavitation, as well as hilar and left mediastinal lymphadenopathy, suggestive of active tuberculosis. Tuberculostatic therapy led to an improvement of the patient's clinical status and a significant reduction in the size of the pontine tuberculoma. Intracranial tuberculomas rarely are seen in industrialized countries. They should, however, be considered as an important part of the differential diagnosis of intracranial space-occupying lesions. In most cases, as in this patient, conservative therapy provides good or excellent results.
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3/316. Microvascular reconstruction of the skull base: indications and procedures.

    PURPOSE: The aim of the current study was to review the use of free tissue transfer for reconstruction of the skull base and for coverage of intracranial contents. patients AND methods: From 1990 until 1996, revascularized flaps were transferred to the skull and the skull base in 11 patients in whom intracranial/extracranial resection of tumors of the skull base was performed in cooperation with the Department of neurosurgery. The defects resulted from removal of squamous cell carcinomas (n = 4), basal cell carcinomas (n = 4), malignant melanoma, malignant schwannoma, and malignant meningioma. Defect repair was accomplished by revascularized transfer of latissimus dorsi muscle flaps in seven cases and rectus abdominis flaps and forearm flaps in two cases each. In five patients with extensive intracranial tumor spread, reconstruction was performed for palliative reasons. RESULTS: A safe soft tissue closure of the intracranial and intradural space was achieved in all patients, whereas the contour of the facial skull and the neurocranium was satisfactorily restored at the same time. By using the entire length of the grafted muscle, the vascular pedicle could be positioned next to the external carotid artery and conveniently connected to the cervical vessels. The mean survival time of the patients with palliative treatment was 8.4 months, with an average duration of hospital stay of 24.5 days. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the increased surgical effort of revascularized tissue transfer, microvascular reconstruction of large skull base defects appears to be justified, even as a palliative measure.
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4/316. Intracranial meningioma with hemorrhage.

    Intracranial meningioma with hemorrhage is not frequently reported. The available articles in the literature regarding intracranial meningioma with hemorrhage are reviewed to the best of our knowledge, and the sixty-one cases have so far been reported. The authors report three cases. In about half of the 64 cases including ours, the tumor was located at the convexity, and histologically classified as meningotheliomatous meningioma. The site of hemorrhage was mainly in the subarachnoid space. In most cases the onset of presenting signs and symptoms was acute. The mean age at the time of tumor hemorrhage was 51 years. There was no sex difference statistically. The importance of the diagnosis of associated hemorrhage and subsequent surgical intervention is emphasized.
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5/316. Intracranial germ cell tumors in children with and without down syndrome.

    PURPOSE: Two Chinese children with down syndrome affected by intracranial germ cell tumors are described. Because they represent two of eight affected patients in the current series from 1990 to 1996, it is postulated that such occurrence may be more than a coincidental event. patients AND methods: Two children with down syndrome developed germ cell tumors in atypical intracranial sites that affected basal ganglion and cerebellum. The pathology showed germinoma and yolk sac tumor, respectively. These were treated by radical surgical resection and chemotherapy with cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin, but without radiotherapy. RESULTS: One patient survived 3 years without radiologic evidence of tumor. The other died from infective complications caused by severe myelosuppression after chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Subtle neurologic manifestations in developmentally handicapped patients with intracranial space-occupying lesions could result in delayed diagnosis. Children with down syndrome suffering from brain tumors may have a higher chance for germ cell tumors. Assay for alpha-fetoprotein and beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin could hasten diagnosis in some cases. This observation and review of literature suggest an increased risk of developing intracranial germ cell tumors in subjects with down syndrome.
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6/316. Intracranial cavernomas: indications for and results of surgery.

    Between April 1991 and April 1997, 46 patients were treated in our department presenting with intracranial cavernomas. Initial symptoms were focal seizures, bleeding episodes, and/or headaches. Mean age was 41 year (range 9 to 68 years). There were 24 female and 22 male patients. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were performed in order to establish the diagnosis, angiography was only indicated when the hemorrhaged area was so close to the subarachnoid space in the vicinity of the basal cisterns that an aneurysm had to be ruled out. Aggressive indication for surgery also in brainstem cavernomas was based on the natural history of the lesion, since the majority of patients presenting with intracranial bleeding had suffered several (up to six) episodes of previous hemorrhages. patients' clinical status upon admission and accessibility of the cavernoma were taken into account for planning the operation. The operative planning and approach were greatly facilitated by using a neuronavigational device and intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring particularly in cavernomas located in the brainstem, thalamus, and medulla oblongata. Surgical removal of the lesions resulted in a new permanent neurological deficit only in two patients (4%). These data show that patients benefit from modern neurosurgical techniques in contrast to conservative approach in this disease of rather prolonged natural course.
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7/316. Giant aneurysms of the posterior fossa presenting as space occupying lesions.

    In relation to the case history of a patient, who was observed at the Ursula Clinic, Wassenaar, Holland, a survey from the literature is given of 47 cases of giant aneurysms of the posterior fossa, which primarily presented as space occupying lesions.
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8/316. Surgical treatment of intractable epilepsy originating from the primary sensory area of the hand--case report.

    A 14-year-old right-handed girl presented with intractable epilepsy originating from the primary sensory area of the hand, manifesting as sensory partial seizures in the left hand with secondary generalization. Neurological examination showed no abnormal findings. magnetic resonance imaging, magnetoencephalography, and cortical stimulation using chronic subdural electrodes demonstrated a lesion located in the primary sensory cortex of the hand, in which the ictal onset zone was identified by 24-hour intracranial electroencephalographic recording. Surgical resection of the lesion and multiple subpial transections of the adjacent cortices were performed. The histological diagnosis was dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT). She was completely free of seizures without permanent sensory deficits postoperatively. DNT located in the primary sensory hand area may be resectable without causing postoperative sensory deficits, if accurate functional mapping and surgical resection are performed.
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9/316. Solid cerebral echinococcosis mimicking a primary brain tumor.

    Solitary brain affection is rare in echinococcosis. We report the case of a 35-year-old woman presenting with symptomatic grand-mal epilepsy due to a right frontal, partially cystic space-occupying lesion. Pre-operative computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggested a cystic astrocytoma. However, histological examination yielded the diagnosis of a 'chitinoma', a rare subtype of solid cerebral hydatid disease (echinococcosis). It mimicked a primary brain tumor and, therefore, posed a diagnostic problem. We present the--to our knowledge--first MRI scans in a case of a histologically proven chitinoma.
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10/316. Clinical effectiveness of dramatherapy in the recovery from neuro-trauma.

    PURPOSE: To investigate the clinical effectiveness of a short course of dramatherapy (an eclectic term encompassing all the arts therapies), delivered in a one-to-one interaction, in a sample of 10 patients in a neuro-rehabilitation unit. METHOD: Each participant received five individual one-to-one sessions of therapy over a 5 week period. A semi-structured interview was carried out with each participant following the course. RESULTS: Qualitative analysis of the taped interviews elicited how the therapy contrasted and complemented the rest of the rehabilitation setting and therapies and how it helped psychological adjustment to severe disabilities resulting from neurotrauma. There were four ways in which it appeared to empower the participants and nurture their self esteem. It provided them with a sense of personal space in an otherwise institutional setting; it allowed escapism and enjoyment; it awakened creativity and a sense of potency; and it provided a metaphor to explore personal issues. CONCLUSION: Dramatherapy made an important contribution to the healthy adjustment of some patients both to hospital life and to acquired disability. The reports from the patients indicated that this approach to rehabilitation should be further incorporated and developed in neuro-rehabilitation.
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