Cases reported "Brain Neoplasms"

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1/562. Surgical management of pediatric tumor-associated epilepsy.

    Brain tumors are a common cause of seizures in children. Early surgical treatment can improve seizure outcome, but controversy exists regarding the most appropriate type of surgical intervention. Some studies suggest tumor resection alone is sufficient, while others recommend mapping and resection of the surrounding epileptogenic foci to optimize seizure outcome. To address this issue, we reviewed the charts of 34 pediatric patients aged 18 months to 20 years with medically intractable epilepsy and primary brain tumors. The average age at operation was 12.6 years, and patients had seizures for an average of 6.4 years. The majority of tumors were located in the temporal lobe. Seventeen patients, because of tumor location near an eloquent area, underwent extraoperative mapping using subdural electrode grids prior to definitive tumor resection. Fourteen of these patients had a gross total tumor resection, yet only two had a distinct zone of ictal onset identified and resected. The remaining 17 patients had tumors either in the nondominant hemisphere or far removed from speech-sensitive areas, and therefore did not undergo extraoperative subdural electroencephalograph mapping. Fourteen of these patients also had a gross total tumor resection, while none had intraoperative electrocorticography to guide the resection of additional nontumoral tissue. overall, of the 28 patients treated with a gross total tumor resection, 24 (86%) are seizure free, while the other four are significantly improved. Of the six patients who had a subtotal tumor removal, five have persistent seizures. The mean follow-up was 3.6 years. We conclude that in children and adolescents, completeness of tumor resection is the most important factor in determining seizure outcome. The routine mapping and resection of epileptogenic foci might not be necessary in the majority of patients. As a corollary, the use of subdural electrode grids in pediatric patients with tumor-associated epilepsy should be limited to cases requiring extraoperative cortical stimulation for localization of nearby eloquent cortex.
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2/562. Severe ocular and orbital toxicity after intracarotid etoposide phosphate and carboplatin therapy.

    PURPOSE: To report severe ocular and orbital toxicity after administration of intracarotid etoposide phosphate and carboplatin. METHOD: Case report. RESULTS: A 52-year-old man with glioblastoma multiforme underwent left intracarotid administration of eto poside phosphate and carboplatin inferior to the ophthalmic artery. Within 7 hours, a nonpupillary block angle-closure glaucoma developed secondary to uveal effusion in the ipsilateral eye, which was relieved by cycloplegia. Four days later, severe orbital inflammation resulted in a visual acuity of counting fingers, proptosis, optic neuropathy, and total external ophthalmoplegia in the eye. The patient's condition improved after a lateral cantholysis and administration of high-dose intravenous corticosteroids. Two weeks later, an anterior uveitis occurred in the left eye, which responded to topical corticosteroids. During a 2-month period, the patient recovered to a visual acuity of 20/70, near normal motility, and normal intraocular pressure, and the ocular and orbital inflammation resolved. Preexisting ipsilateral chemotherapy-induced maculopathy became more pronounced. CONCLUSION: Ocular and orbital toxicity after intracarotid etoposide phosphate and carboplatin therapy is infrequently reported.
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keywords = visual
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3/562. Integration of preoperative and intraoperative functional brain mapping in a frameless stereotactic environment for lesions near eloquent cortex. Technical note.

    The authors present a method of incorporating preoperative noninvasive functional brain mapping data into the frameless stereotactic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging dataset used for image-guided resection of brain lesions located near eloquent cortex. They report the use of functional (f)MR imaging and magnetic source (MS) imaging for preoperative mapping of eloquent cortex in difficult cases of brain tumor resection such as those in which there are large expansive masses or in which reoperations are required and the anatomy is distorted from prior treatments. To correlate methods of preoperative and intraoperative mapping localization directly, the authors have developed techniques of importing preoperative MS and fMR imaging data into an image-guided frameless stereotactic computer workstation. The data appear as a seamless overlay on the same preoperative volumetric MR imaging dataset used for stereotactic guidance during the operation. Intraoperatively identified functional locations mapped by cortical stimulation are recorded as digitally registered points. This approach should prove useful in assessing the accuracy and reliability of various preoperative functional brain mapping techniques.
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4/562. Cerebral metastasis presenting with altitudinal field defect.

    A 75-year-old man presented with a unilateral inferior altitudinal visual field defect and a history of weight loss and night sweats. The acuity in the affected eye was 20/200, otherwise his ocular examination was normal. neuroimaging demonstrated a post-fixed chiasm, with a frontal metastasis compressing the intracerebral portion of the optic nerve. A chest x-ray showed classical cannon ball lesions, secondary to malignant melanoma. This is the first case report of an intracerebral tumor producing an inferior altitudinal field defect.
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ranking = 0.051259900888216
keywords = visual
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5/562. Minimally invasive stereotactically-guided extirpation of brain stem cavernoma with the aid of electrophysiological methods.

    The surgical extirpation of brain stem cavernomas always includes a risk of neurological deficits. To minimize the risk of deficits and control the motor and sensory function intraoperative monitoring of SEP and MEP seems to be helpful. The high density of motor and sensory fibers within the brain stem makes bilateral intraoperative monitoring necessary. The following case demonstrates a stereotactically-guided supratentorial, transventricular approach for extirpation of a brain stem cavernoma. Sensory and motoric functions were observed by transcranial recording of SEP's and by transcranial stimulation of motor cortex.
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6/562. Suprasellar cystic germinoma.

    We report on a germinoma in the suprasellar region, which had multiple large cystic components. A 13-year-old girl with disturbed visual acuity and growth retardation was admitted to our hospital for treatment of an intracranial tumor. The lesion was difficult to diagnose as a germinoma preoperatively, because of its radiographic characteristics. Histopathological examination revealed that the tumor was a germinoma. Surgery, chemotherapy with carboplatin and etoposide, and radiotherapy (30 Gy) were successful in inducing complete remission of the tumor. The patient's endocrine status remained normal, except for a low GH concentration and diabetes insipidus.
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keywords = visual
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7/562. Surgery of angiomas in the brainstem with a stress on the presence of telangiectasia.

    This report deals with the surgery of angiomas other than arteriovenous malformation in the brainstem. The surgical cases were three cavernomas, two telangiectasias, and two venous malformations. We performed surgery when an angioma bled and the resulting hematoma was situated near the surface of the brainstem or the fourth ventricle. The cases were operated on at the subacute or chronic stages after hemorrhage. Although a magnetic resonance (MR) image showed a subacute or chronic localized hematoma with a low intensity rim, the case was not always a cavernoma, but a telangiectasia. Cavernomas could be totally removed, but telangiectasia could not. In the cases of medullary venous malformation the diagnosis was obtained radiologically, and when the hematoma was large, only hematoma evacuation was performed. In all cases the postoperative Karnofsky scores were improved or unchanged. Postoperative rebleeding in the hematoma cavity continued insidiously in a case of telangiectasia. The abnormal vessels of telangiectasia in the brainstem were preoperatively not visualized by cerebral angiography or MR imaging, but became visualized by enhanced MR imaging after evacuation of hematoma in two cases. It is stressed that an angioma with a hematoma intensity core surrounded by a low intensity rim on MR images is not always a cavernoma, but possibly is a telangiectasia.
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ranking = 0.10251980177643
keywords = visual
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8/562. Symptomatic vasospasm after resection of a suprasellar pilocytic astrocytoma: case report and possible pathogenesis.

    BACKGROUND: Cerebral vasospasm from pathology other than subarachnoid hemorrhage is uncommon. A case of severe vasospasm after resection of a suprasellar pilocytic astrocytoma is reported. methods: A 45-year-old male presented with headache, left facial numbness, bilateral visual loss, and ataxia. Evaluation revealed a large suprasellar tumor, which was resected. Pathologic examination showed pilocytic astrocytoma. The patient developed hemiparesis and aphasia on the fifth postoperative day. Vascular spasm was documented on angiography and by transcranial Doppler. RESULTS: Intraarterial papaverine resulted in moderate angiographic improvement. Attempts to open middle cerebral artery branches with angioplasty were unsuccessful. The patient subsequently developed a left middle cerebral artery infarct. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first description of vasospasm after resection of an astrocytoma. Possible mechanisms contributing to this unusual complication after resection of tumors are discussed.
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keywords = visual
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9/562. Meningotheliomatous meningioma accompanied by aspergillosis at the skull base.

    A 73-year-old man was admitted because of right frontal headache and gradual loss of right visual acuity, which had been occurring for 1 year. He had been treated with corticosteroids under the diagnosis of retrobulbar optic neuritis at a nearby clinic. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a nodular lesion at the tuberculum sellae, which showed isointensity on T1-weighted images, iso- to low-intensity on T2-weighted images, and heterogeneous enhancement with Gd-DTPA. meningioma was diagnosed, and surgery was performed but was limited to biopsy because of intraoperative detection of purulent inflammation of the nodule. Histologic examination revealed aspergillosis in a portion of the meningotheliomatous meningioma. The patient died of meningoencephalitis about 1 month after surgery in spite of extensive treatment with antifungal agents. MRI findings of meningioma and aspergillosis are similar, thus making preoperative diagnosis difficult. However, this case provides evidence that aspergillosis should be included in the differential diagnosis when a skull-base meningioma-like nodule is noted if sinusitis is revealed in the sphenoid sinus.
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ranking = 0.051259900888216
keywords = visual
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10/562. Surgical treatment of intractable epilepsy originating from the primary sensory area of the hand--case report.

    A 14-year-old right-handed girl presented with intractable epilepsy originating from the primary sensory area of the hand, manifesting as sensory partial seizures in the left hand with secondary generalization. Neurological examination showed no abnormal findings. magnetic resonance imaging, magnetoencephalography, and cortical stimulation using chronic subdural electrodes demonstrated a lesion located in the primary sensory cortex of the hand, in which the ictal onset zone was identified by 24-hour intracranial electroencephalographic recording. Surgical resection of the lesion and multiple subpial transections of the adjacent cortices were performed. The histological diagnosis was dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT). She was completely free of seizures without permanent sensory deficits postoperatively. DNT located in the primary sensory hand area may be resectable without causing postoperative sensory deficits, if accurate functional mapping and surgical resection are performed.
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