Cases reported "Brain Neoplasms"

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1/161. Increased risk of erythema multiforme major with combination anticonvulsant and radiation therapies.

    erythema multiforme major (EMM; stevens-johnson syndrome) is a cutaneous disorder associated with a wide variety of factors including ingestion of drugs such as phenytoin and exposure to intracranial radiation therapy. Based on observations of a 47-year-old black man with brain metastases who developed EMM after combined phenytoin and radiation therapy, we conducted a medline literature search for articles on similar cases from 1966 to the present. Twenty cases were identified that support the hypothesis that EMM is associated with combined phenytoin and radiation therapy. The reaction, or its severity, has no relationship to the phenytoin or radiation therapy dosage, or to the histologic type of brain tumor. Also, EMM has no apparent age or gender predisposition in association with phenytoin-radiation therapy. Thus this is a clinical phenomenon that occurs with unusual frequency in patients with brain tumor who undergo radiation therapy while taking phenytoin. phenytoin and other anticonvulsants such as phenobarbital and carbamazepine induce cytochrome P450 3A and produce oxidative reactive intermediates that may be implicated in hypersensitivity reactions such as EMM. Both carbamazepine and barbiturates have shown cross-sensitivity with phenytoin; furthermore, a case of EMM in a patient receiving carbamazepine and whole brain radiation therapy has been reported. As carbamazepine, valproate, and barbiturates have been associated with EMM, gabapentin may be considered as alternative anticonvulsant therapy when appropriate.
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2/161. Auditory brainstem response and neuropathology in a case of systemic T-cell lymphoma with intracranial metastasis.

    A 58-year-old male with systemic T-cell lymphoma involving the brainstem eccentrically, showed varying abnormal auditory brainstem responses (ABRs). The initial ABR demonstrated a prolonged V wave peak latency and an I-V IPL on admission. Four months later, all waves were absent bilaterally. Neuropathological examination at autopsy revealed that most of the nuclei and tracts associated with the auditory system were destroyed by lymphoid cell infiltration. It suggested that in the early stages of this disease, lymphoid cells could have involved the lower brainstem and, subsequently, in the advanced stages invaded the inferior colliculus.
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3/161. An unusual case of cephalocele associated with lipoma of corpus callosum.

    Cephalocele is a part of the family of neural tube defects. Although the frequency has ranged from 1 per 2,400 to 1 per 12,500 live births, the true incidence has been hidden in stillborns, underreferral of massive defects and early pregnancy losses. It has been suggested that the size, the content of the sac and associated hydrocephalus were unfavorable factors for the prognosis. Cephaloceles may occur as isolated malformations or together with other anomalies, and associated abnormalities are present in up to 50% of the cases. We report an unusual case of encephalocele associated with lipoma of corpus callosum, and the features of magnetic resonance imaging are discussed.
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4/161. Molecular analysis of glioma and skin-tumour alterations in a xeroderma-pigmentosum child.

    xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare hereditary disease characterized by a very high frequency of skin tumours due to a defect in the nucleotide-excision-repair process. Some of these patients have also been reported to develop internal tumours with higher frequency than the normal population. Reported here are the clinical features and molecular analysis of an XP patient who developed multiple skin cancers as well as a thalamic glioma. Complementation analysis with recombinant retrovirus, cloning efficiency and unscheduled DNA synthesis after UV-C indicate that the patient belongs to the C group. Characterization of the p53 mutations in the 2 tumours of the patient leads to speculation on the aetiological agents involved in tumour initiation. The skin tumour is clearly induced by the presence of unrepaired UVB-induced dna damage on the non-transcribed strand of the p53 gene, while the glioma may be induced by unrepaired DNA lesions produced by free radicals.
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5/161. Primary cerebral neuroblastoma. A clinicopathological study of 35 cases.

    A series of 35 primary cerebral neuroblastoma is reported. These rare tumours occur most often in children in the first half of the first decade. Grossly the tumors are often massive, discrete, lobular, firm and cystic. Histologically three variants, largely determined by the extent and distribution of the fibrous connective tissue stroma, are recognized: (1) a classical variant, which most resembles the peripheral neuroblastoma and is characterized by a high frequency of Homer Wright rosettes and a relatively high frequency of ganglionic differentiation; (2) a desmoplastic variant, which is characterized by an intense connective tissue stroma; and (3) a transitional variant, in which both the classical and the desmoplastic features may be present within the same case, either concurrently or consecutively. Both the desmoplastic and the transitional forms are less likely to exhibit differentiation to mature ganglion cells, but the importance of identifying the primitive cell elements as neuroblasts is emphasized. With rare exceptions, this can be established only by specific silver impregnations on frozen material. Occasionally the direction of growth may be largely leptomeningeal. Seven illustrative clinical histories with pathological correlations are described. The over-all clinical behaviour of these tumours is that of malignant neuroepithelial neoplasms, characterized by a high recurrence rate. recurrence may, however, be a late development, in some cases occurring five or seven years after apparently successful surgical removal. The tumour shows shows a high incidence of metastatic spread, almost 40 per cent of the cases examined at autopsy having disseminated in the cerebrospinal pathways. Exceptionally, extraneural metastases may also develop. However, long post-operative survival occasionally occurs, and the subsequent clinical course is not always predictable in the individual case. The differential diagnosis is briefly discussed. The cellular nature of the tumour and its biological behaviour recall those of the cerebellar medulloblastoma. Post-operative radiation to the entire neuraxis should be considered for these neoplasms.
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6/161. Cytologic diagnosis of a solitary brain metastasis from papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. A case report.

    BACKGROUND: Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid metastasizes to the brain in rare instances. In published series and case reports of metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma, diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) metastases has been determined by histologic methods. We present a case of papillary carcinoma metastatic to brain diagnosed by cytologic methods. CASE: A 43-year-old female, initially diagnosed at age 12 with papillary carcinoma of the thyroid metastatic to regional lymph nodes and lung, presented with head aches of increasing frequency and severity. A computed tomography scan confirmed a 1-cm nodule in the right inferior frontal lobe of the brain. For clinical reasons, the patient was followed with serial imaging for five years. At age 48 there was significant progression of the CNS disease, and the patient underwent stereotactic biopsy with drainage of cyst fluid. Cytologic examination of the cyst fluid and immunocytochemical studies confirmed the typical features of papillary thyroid carcinoma, including papillary clusters of cells with finely granular chromatin, micronucleoli, nuclear grooves and an associated psammoma body. CONCLUSION: Neurocytology is a useful technique in the examination of cystic lesions of the brain and may be the sole technique for determination of diagnosis.
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7/161. Recurrent Epstein-Barr virus-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder: report of a patient with histologically similar but clonally distinct metachronous abdominal and brain lesions.

    A liver transplant patient developed a single central nervous system (CNS) intraparenchymal lesion 5 months after the diagnosis of an intraabdominal diffuse large B-cell post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). biopsy of the new CNS lesion showed a diffuse large B-cell PTLD morphologically and immunohistochemically indistinguishable from the abdominal lesion. In addition, both lesions were positive for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and for EBV-encoded rna by in situ hybridization. Although these results were consistent with a metastatic origin for the CNS lesion, the finding of an intraparenchymal lesion without leptomeningeal or dural spread was suggestive of a new primary CNS lymphoma. Proof that the brain lesion was a second primary and not a metastasis was obtained by immunoglobulin gene rearrangement studies and assessment of EBV clonality. Multiple primary lymphoid neoplasms arise at higher frequency in the setting of immunosuppression, and molecular investigations of tumor clonality can provide clinically relevant staging and prognostic information.
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8/161. Long survival and therapeutic responses in patients with histologically disparate high-grade gliomas demonstrating chromosome 1p loss.

    OBJECT: Allelic loss of chromosome 1p is a powerful predictor of tumor chemosensitivity and prolonged survival in patients with anaplastic oligodendrogliomas. Chromosome 1p loss also occurs in astrocytic and oligoastrocytic gliomas, although less commonly than in pure oligodendroglial tumors. This observation raises the possibility investigated in this study that chromosome 1p loss might also provide prognostic information for patients with high-grade gliomas with astrocytic components. methods: The authors report on seven patients with high-grade gliomas composed of either pure astrocytic or mixed astrocytic-oligodendroglial phenotypes, who had remarkable neuroradiological responses to therapy or unexpectedly long survivals. All of the tumors from these seven patients demonstrated chromosome 1p loss, whereas other genetic alterations characteristic of high-grade gliomas (p53 gene mutations, EGFR gene amplification, chromosome 10 loss, chromosome 19q loss, or CDKN2A/p16 deletions) were only found in occasional cases. The authors also assessed the frequency of chromosome 1p loss in a series of anonymous high-grade astrocytoma samples obtained from a tumor bank and demonstrate that this genetic change is uncommon, occurring in only 10% of cases. CONCLUSIONS: Although any prognostic importance of chromosome 1p loss in astrocytic or mixed astrocytic-oligodendroglial gliomas can only be determined in larger and prospective series, these findings raise the possibility that some high-grade gliomas with chromosome 1p loss, in addition to pure anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, may follow a more favorable clinical course.
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9/161. Subdural air limits the elicitation of compound muscle action potentials by high-frequency transcranial electrical stimulation.

    High-frequency transcranial electrical stimulation was performed in 8 patients undergoing surgery in the sitting position. Following the opening of the dura of the posterior fossa changes in compound muscle action potentials were observed. These changes were not attributable to surgical manoeuvres at the brain stem or spinal cord, or to anaesthetic changes. In all these cases intraoperative fluoroscopy of the skull revealed a subdural air collection underneath the stimulation electrodes. Such a subdural air collection, not infrequent in patients operated on in the sitting position, limits the application of high-frequency transcranial electrical stimulation as a monitoring technique. It remains unclear if this effect is due to the increasing distance between scalp and cortex and the insulating effect of subdural air, or due to displacement of the motor cortex. The practical importance of this report is derived from the increasing application of intraoperative motor pathway monitoring.
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10/161. Multicentric intracranial smooth-muscle tumor in a woman with human immunodeficiency virus. Case report.

    A 31-year-old woman with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was found to harbor both a pulmonary smooth-muscle tumor and an intracranial extraaxial smooth-muscle tumor of the parasellar region. The frequency of smooth-muscle tumors (leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma) has increased with AIDS, but much more so in children than in adults. Only nine cases of human immunodeficiency virus-related smooth-muscle tumors have been previously reported in adults, and only one of these was located intracranially.
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