Cases reported "brain stem neoplasms"

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1/132. Metastatic adenocarcinoma masquerading as basal pontine tuberculoma.

    Tuberculous infection of the central nervous system is common in hong kong. A 39-year-old woman presented with isolated right sixth nerve palsy which was non-progressive for 10 months. Neuro-imaging revealed a right pontine lesion. cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination showed lymphocytic meningitis with negative bacteriological and cytological studies. Empirical antituberculous drugs with initial corticosteroid resulted in improved CSF parameters. A diagnosis of cerebral tuberculoma complicated by meningitis was made. She subsequently deteriorated clinically and radiologically. Despite a number of clinical features which were atypical of leptomeningeal metastasis, adenosquamous carcinoma was found on biopsy. Her relatively indolent clinical course might be due to the initial corticosteroid treatment. This report illustrates the importance of early tissue diagnosis in uncertain cases of chronic lymphocytic meningitis. ( info)

2/132. Parkinsonism in children resulting from mesencephalic tumors.

    Parkinsonism secondary to intrinsic brain stem mass lesions is rare. Two children with parkinsonism caused by mesencephalic tumors are reported. The pathophysiological mechanisms of this association are discussed and the literature describing similar cases is reviewed. ( info)

3/132. Bilateral symmetrical enhancing brainstem lesions: an unusual presentation of primary CNS lymphoma.

    We report a patient with a progressive brainstem syndrome, who on magnetic resonance imaging had large bilateral, symmetrical, contrast-enhancing, infratentorial space-occupying lesions. biopsy of one of the lesions revealed this unusual appearance to be due to a primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma of B-cell type. Symmetry of lesions may be a clue to the diagnosis, perhaps reflecting the mechanism by which CNS lymphomas spread. ( info)

4/132. Histiocytic lesion mimicking intrinsic brainstem neoplasm. Case report.

    This 10-year-old girl presented with a 1-month history of progressive bulbar palsy and a solitary enhancing mass originating within the floor of the fourth ventricle. Results of initial imaging studies and presentation were suggestive of neoplasia. Subtotal resection was performed and pathological examination revealed the mass to be a histiocytic lesion, with no evidence of a glioma. The patient had no other stigmata of histiocytosis and was treated with steroid medications, resulting in prolonged resolution of the lesion. This case demonstrates that for discrete brainstem lesions the differential diagnosis includes entities other than glioma for which treatment is available. biopsy sampling should be considered when technically feasible. ( info)

5/132. Sudden and unexpected infant death due to an hemangioendothelioma located in the medulla oblongata.

    Herein, we report the case of a 4-month-old male infant dying suddenly and unexpectedly. Post mortem examination was requested with clinical diagnosis of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Histological examination showed instead the presence of an hemangioendothelioma located in the medulla oblongata. Sudden unexpected death is the commonest form of death among babies between 1 month and 1 year of age. Although the vast majority of these fatalities are related to SIDS, a very small percentage is due to primary neoplasm. Necroscopy studies of sudden infant death should always include an accurate histological examination of the medulla oblongata on serial sections but seldom do. ( info)

6/132. Extreme lateral supracerebellar infratentorial approach to the posterolateral mesencephalon: technique and clinical experience.

    OBJECTIVE: Lesions situated posterolaterally along the mesencephalon present neurosurgeons with a special challenge. The midline and paramedian variations of the supracerebellar infratentorial approaches do not adequately expose this region. The subtemporal approach risks injury to the vein of Labbe. An extreme lateral supracerebellar infratentorial approach with more radical resection of bone superiorly and laterally, and skeletonization of the sigmoid and transverse sinuses, was used to approach lesions at this location in eight methods: Five cavernous malformations, two juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas, and one peripheral superior cerebellar artery aneurysm located in this region were approached in eight patients. In this extreme lateral approach, the sigmoid sinus is unroofed more superiorly and the bone flap includes not only a posterior fossa craniotomy but also a portion that extends just above the transverse sinus. The dural opening is based along the transverse and sigmoid sinuses. After the cerebrospinal fluid has been drained, the lateral aspect of the brainstem is approached via the cerebellar surface. A proximal tentorial incision offers additional rostral exposure where needed. RESULTS: Seven patients in this series underwent successful resection of their lesion. The remaining patient's aneurysm was clipped successfully with no major complications. CONCLUSION: The extreme lateral supracerebellar infratentorial approach differs from the midline and paramedian supracerebellar infratentorial variants in the area of exposure, patient positioning, and location of the craniotomy. The technique is effective for approaching the posterolateral mesencephalon. ( info)

7/132. Brainstem encephalitis resulting from Epstein-Barr virus mimicking an infiltrating tumor in a child.

    A case of a child with subacute neurologic features and imaging findings consistent with a brainstem encephalitis that was discovered to be related to a primary central nervous system infection caused by Epstein-Barr virus is presented. A brainstem tumor was initially suspected, but a correct diagnosis was formulated on the basis of the favorable clinical course and the detection of positive Epstein-Barr virus serology. In contrast to a prompt recovery of neurologic signs the neuroimaging alterations persisted for a longer time. The present report emphasizes the possible role of Epstein-Barr virus in the pathogenesis of infectious neurologic disorders in childhood, underlining the unusual presentation of a brainstem encephalitis, and considers the discrepancy between the course of neurologic features and the evolution of imaging alterations. ( info)

8/132. Malignant pilocytic astrocytoma in the medulla oblongata: case report.

    A 27-year-old woman visited our hospital with chief complaints of abducens nerve palsy and cerebellar symptoms. On computerized tomographic scanning and magnetic resonance imaging, a tumor with strong enhancement was found on the dorsal side of the medulla oblongata. A tumor was excised by suboccipital craniotomy and C1 laminectomy. Histologically, many Rosenthal fibers together with pilocytic tumor cells were found in some regions, but a very high Ki-67 labeling rate accompanied by cells with nuclei of irregular size and giant cells was observed in other regions. The tumor was diagnosed as malignant pilocytic astrocytoma originating from pilocytic astrocytoma by transformation. The biological behavior of pilocytic astrocytoma is obscure in several respects. We report our experience of a case of malignant pilocytic astrocytoma that developed in the brain stem and progressed extremely rapidly. ( info)

9/132. cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal IgG bands in patients with spinal arteriovenous malformation and structural central nervous system lesions.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence and characteristics of patients with structural central nervous system (CNS) lesions and cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal IgG bands. DESIGN: A retrospective study. METHOD: The medical records of patients with cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal IgG bands were evaluated for the presence of structural CNS lesions, their location and cause, and for clinical characteristics. SETTING: cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal IgG bands were examined in the Neuroimmunology Laboratory, Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem, israel. patients: Two hundred seventy of 570 patients with positive cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal IgG bands were available for analysis. Twenty patients had structural CNS lesions. RESULTS: Twenty (7.5%) of the 270 patients had structural CNS lesions: 3 patients had spinal arteriovenous malformation; 5 patients had tumors; 9 patients had compressive cervical myelopathy. Traumatic leukomalacia, arnold-chiari malformation type 1, and CNS hemosiderosis were present in 1 patient each. In 2 patients (1 patient with recurrent meningioma and 1 patient with posttraumatic encephalomalacia) the presence of a structural CNS lesion was followed by the development of multiple sclerosis. In all 3 patients with spinal arteriovenous malformation, oligoclonal IgG identification prolonged the time to diagnosis and therapy, which varied from a few weeks to 3 years. CONCLUSIONS: Structural CNS lesions, responsible for the neurological disorder, were present in 20 patients (7.5%) with cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal IgG bands. The mechanism underlying oligoclonal IgG presence in spinal arteriovenous malformation and the coexistence of multiple sclerosis and structural CNS lesions is unknown, but may be related to recurrent tissue damage with repeated presentation of CNS antigens to the immune system. ( info)

10/132. Neuroendoscopic biopsy of tectal glioma: a case report.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: A type of intrinsic dorsal midbrain glioma known as benign tectal glioma can cause obstructive hydrocephalus. Because of its slow progress and relatively good prognosis, initial treatment should be cerebrospinal fluid diversion and biopsy. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: We report a 24-year-old man with obstructive hydrocephalus from a tectal glioma, who was admitted to the hospital for malfunction of a shunt placed 16 years previously. INTERVENTION: magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated enlargement of the dorsal midbrain associated with increased signal intensity on T2-weighted images and fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. No enhancement occurred with contrast administration. We performed a neuroendoscopic third ventriculostomy and biopsy of the tumor. Histologic examination of the specimen obtained disclosed a low-grade astrocytoma. No postoperative neurologic complications occurred. CONCLUSION: FLAIR images were superior to T2-weighted images in demonstrating abnormal intensity in the dorsal midbrain. neuroendoscopy confirmed a yellowish tumor inferior to the posterior commissure occluding the entrance of the aqueduct, an observation useful in planning biopsy of the lesion. As the tumor apparently had existed for a number of years, the case supports the notion that the prognosis associated with these tumors is good. ( info)
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