Cases reported "Breast Neoplasms"

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1/95. Multiple primary cancers and HPV infection: are they related?

    Multiple primary cancers have been reported with increasing frequency in recent years, but the presence of foreign dna sequences of infectious agents in tumours arising in the same patient has so far not been investigated. We report a case of a patient with Hodgkin's lymphoma, an "in situ" cervix carcinoma and an adenocarcinoma of the right and left mammary gland. In all the tumour samples we detected the presence of dna genomic sequences of Papillomavirus type 16. Our results suggest that HPV infection may be an exogenous risk factor even in second primary tumours of non-epithelial origin.
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2/95. breast cancer metastatic to the uterine cervix: analysis of a rare event.

    A patient with cervical metastases leading to the diagnosis of a primary breast cancer is presented. To better define the frequency, symptoms, and characteristics of breast cancer metastasizing to the uterine cervix, all cases reported in the literature since 1950 are reviewed. This analysis reveals that in 21% of these cases, metastases were found before or at the same time as the primary tumor. The most common presenting symptom was abnormal vaginal bleeding (57%), but in 32% of the patients, no clinical sign was present. Because 41% of the reported cases were found only at autopsy, the characteristics of this kind of metastatic breast cancer, effectiveness of diagnostic procedures, and treatment options are critically discussed.
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3/95. toremifene-induced fatty liver and NASH in breast cancer patients with breast-conservation treatment.

    We have described fatty liver, diagnosed by computed tomography scanning (CT) in more than 30% of patients with breast cancer who received tamoxifen. Therefore, it is urgent to elucidate the frequency and the degree of fatty liver induced by toremifene, an analogue of tamoxifen, which is also used in breast cancer. We enrolled 52 breast cancer patients who were treated with breast-conservation treatment and administered oral toremifene for 3-5 years as adjuvant endocrine therapy. We evaluated the degree of fatty liver by abdominal CT performed annually. CT demonstrated toremifene-induced fatty liver in four (7.7%) of 52 breast cancer patients. toremifene-induced fatty liver did not correlate with abnormal levels of AST, ALT, GGT or total cholesterol. One patient who demonstrated moderate fatty liver by CT was histologically diagnosed as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) by liver biopsy. The incidence of toremifene-induced fatty liver was significantly lower than that induced by tamoxifen. Accordingly, in terms of fatty liver and NASH, toremifene is considered to be more appropriate agent than tamoxifen. Though toremifene is less likely to induce fatty liver, the possibility remains that toremifene-induced steatohepatitis occurs. Because the diagnosis of fatty liver or NASH can be easily missed if only a blood test is performed, it is necessary to screen fatty liver by annual CT examination for patients who receive an antiestrogen agent.
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4/95. High frequency of incidental diagnosis of extrathyroidal neoplastic diseases at the fine-needle aspiration biopsy of laterocervical lymph nodes in patients with thyroid nodules.

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the frequency of the incidental diagnosis of extrathyroidal lymph node diseases at ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy/cytology (FNAB/C) being done to check the presence of metastatic thyroid cancer in 30 subjects with thyroid nodule (TN) and enlarged cervical lymph nodes (CLN). The patients in whom cytology suggested the presence of malignancy in the TN or in the CLN underwent surgical removal for histologic diagnosis. The spectrum of diseases revealed by this survey included: (1) 10 benign diseases including 1 case of Piringer-Kuchinka lymphadenitis with benign TN; (2) 10 metastatic thyroid cancers (2 anaplastic and 8 papillary cancers); (3) 3 benign TN associated with metastatic invasion of cervical lymph nodes from lung (2 cases) and breast (1 case) cancer; (4) 1 Hodgkin's lymphoma of the cervical lymph nodes with hyperplastic TN; (5) 3 nodal lymphomas with benign thyroid nodule and 2 cases of thyroid lymphoma with nodal invasion; and (6) 1 nodal sarcoidosis with benign TN. The results of this study demonstrate that important neoplastic and hematologic diseases affecting the cervical lymph nodes may frequently be incidentally detected using ultrasonography (US) and FNAB/C in the diagnostic procedure for thyroid nodule.
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5/95. interferon-gamma in 5 patients with cutaneous radiation syndrome after radiation therapy.

    BACKGROUND: Irradiation can cause acute inflammatory responses as well as chronic fibrotic alterations of the skin. Cutaneous radiation fibrosis evokes a complex of therapeutic problems. However, therapeutic options, apart from surgical approaches, are limited. patients AND methods: Five female patients suffering from severe cutaneous fibrosis were treated with interferon-gamma on a low-dose regimen, 3 x 100 microg/week subcutaneously for 6 months, then once per week for another 6 months. In 4 patients, skin thickness was measured with high-frequency (20 MHz) ultrasound in a clinically well-defined target skin lesion. In 1 patient, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging was performed to quantify the extent of cutaneous radiation fibrosis and to monitor the therapeutic outcome. RESULTS: All patients suffered from radiation-induced cutaneous fibrosis. Additionally, in 1 patient, a fistula, as assessed by lymph vessel scintigraphy, and in another patient a radiation ulcer was diagnosed. In all patients, reduction of radiation-induced fibrosis could be documented. Both fistula and radiation ulcer regressed completely under interferon-gamma therapy. CONCLUSION: Low-dose interferon-gamma therapy is a new and effective treatment modality for cutaneous radiation fibrosis caused by radiation therapy. The positive impact of interferon-gamma on our patients warrants randomized double-blind trials on therapy of radiation fibrosis.
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6/95. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation status and cancer family history of Danish women affected with multifocal or bilateral breast cancer at a young age.

    INTRODUCTION: A small fraction of breast cancer is the result of germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 cancer susceptibility genes. mutation carriers frequently have a positive family history of breast and ovarian cancer, are often diagnosed at a young age, and may have a higher incidence of double or multiple primary breast tumours than breast cancer patients in general. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence and spectrum of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in young Danish patients affected with bilateral or multifocal breast cancer and to determine the relationship of mutation status to family history of cancer. SUBJECTS: From the files of the Danish breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), we selected 119 breast cancer patients diagnosed before the age of 46 years with either bilateral (n=59) or multifocal (n=61) disease. methods: dna from the subjects was screened for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations using single strand conformation analysis (SSCA) and the protein truncation test (PTT). Observed and expected cancer incidence in first degree relatives of the patients was estimated using data from the Danish Cancer Registry. RESULTS: Twenty four mutation carriers were identified (20%), of whom 13 had a BRCA1 mutation and 11 carried a BRCA2 mutation. Two mutations in BRCA1 were found repeatedly in the material and accounted for seven of the 24 (29%) mutation carriers. The mutation frequency was about equal in patients with bilateral (22%) and multifocal breast cancer (18%). The incidence of breast and ovarian cancer was greatly increased in first degree relatives of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, but to a much lesser degree in relatives of non-carriers. An increased risk of cancer was also noted in brothers of non-carriers. CONCLUSIONS: A relatively broad spectrum of germline mutations was observed in BRCA1 and BRCA2 and most of the mutations are present in other populations. Our results indicate that a diagnosis of bilateral and multifocal breast cancer is predictive of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation status, particularly when combined with information on the patients' age at diagnosis and family history of breast/ovarian cancer.
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7/95. pulmonary fibrosis induced by cyclophosphamide.

    OBJECTIVE: To report a case of pulmonary fibrosis resulting from use of cyclophosphamide as chemotherapy to treat a patient with breast cancer. CASE SUMMARY: We describe the case of a 52-year-old woman with breast cancer who developed pulmonary fibrosis after four cycles of chemotherapy that included cyclophosphamide. Pulmonary function tests revealed the presence of a severe ventilatory restriction. The open lung biopsy revealed pulmonary fibrosis with vascular sclerosis and signs of pulmonary hypertension. DISCUSSION: cyclophosphamide is an alkylating agent that has been associated with interstitial pneumonia and pulmonary fibrosis. The frequency of these unwanted effects is <1%. The clinical picture consists of the progressive appearance of dyspnea and a non-productive cough that progresses to severe pulmonary insufficiency. The risk factors described for these complications have been the use of chemotherapy regimens that include other drugs with known pulmonary toxicities, the cumulative total dose, the addition of radiotherapy, and the use of high doses of cyclophosphamide. CONCLUSIONS: Even though the frequency of pulmonary fibrosis in patients treated with cyclophosphamide-based chemotherapy regimens is low, the presence of dyspnea and an interstitial pattern in a patient makes it necessary to consider that possible drug toxicity. The open lung biopsy is the most accurate diagnostic technique for these cases. The discontinuation of cyclophosphamide and treatment with corticosteroids is usually followed by clinical recovery in approximately 50% of patients and, in some cases, reversal of the lung injury.
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8/95. Multispectral near-infrared tomography: a case study in compensating for water and lipid content in hemoglobin imaging of the breast.

    Images of hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation are presented from multispectral near-infrared tomographic measurements in the breast of a woman with an invasive cancer. Images of the absorption coefficient and reduced scattering coefficient are recovered from the measured data using a finite element reconstruction algorithm based on the frequency-domain diffusion equation. Three methods of recovering the hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation images are presented which compensate for water and lipid absorption in different ways: (1) an assumed bulk content of water and lipids is used, (2) four chromophores are imaged, and (3) scattering power data are applied to deduce water and lipid images. In all three cases, a large increase in the hemoglobin concentration (3:1) is observed at the location of the cancer while a maximum of 15% difference is observed in the hemoglobin images between each of these methods for water and lipid compensation.
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9/95. Debilitating lymphedema of the upper extremity after treatment of breast cancer.

    lymphedema after mastectomy occurs with a frequency as high as 30%. The incidence increases with more radical surgical dissection, as was often seen with radical mastectomies in the late 1800s. This is one aspect of breast surgery that has been greatly neglected. Surgery has often been deemed a success if the malignancy is eradicated. patients may complain of symptoms as minor as arm heaviness to major ones such as massive chronic swelling, as was the case with our patient. The patient presented here had increasing lymphedema during a 14-year period after modified radical mastectomy and radiation therapy for advanced breast cancer. This condition had progressed to incapacitation of the extremity and a patient who as a result had become an invalid. The massively edematous extremity revealed no signs of recurrent disease or malignant degeneration. She underwent surgical intervention and physical therapy as procedures of choice to restore function.
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10/95. To excise or to sample the mammographic target: what is the goal of stereotactic 11-gauge vacuum-assisted breast biopsy?

    OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to determine whether complete percutaneous excision rather than sampling of the mammographic target conveys any significant advantage or disadvantage at stereotactic 11-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy. MATERIALS AND methods: A retrospective review was performed of 788 consecutive solitary lesions in which the mammographic target was excised (n = 466) or sampled (n = 322) at stereotactic 11-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy. medical records and histologic findings were reviewed to determine the frequency of sparing surgery, discordance, histologic underestimation, rebiopsy, complete histologic removal of cancer, and complications. Statistical comparisons were made using the Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: Complete excision rather than sampling of the mammographic target was associated with a significantly lower frequency of discordance (1/466, 0.2% vs 8/322, 2.5%; p = 0.004) and a trend toward fewer ductal carcinoma in situ underestimates (4/59, 6.8% vs 12/60, 20.0%; p = 0.07). Complete histologic removal of cancer was significantly more likely if the mammographic target was excised rather than sampled (19/91, 20.9% vs 7/106, 6.6%; p = 0.006); however, among 91 cancers in which the mammographic target was excised, surgery revealed residual cancer in 72 (79.1%). Complete excision rather than sampling of the mammographic target yielded no significant differences in the frequency of sparing surgery, atypical ductal hyperplasia underestimates, rebiopsy, or complications. CONCLUSION: Complete excision rather than sampling of the mammographic target was associated with lower frequencies of discordance and ductal carcinoma in situ underestimation but had no other advantage or disadvantage. Among cancers in which the mammographic target was excised, surgery revealed residual cancer in almost 80%.
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