Cases reported "Breast Neoplasms"

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1/28. Diabetic mastopathy: a report of 5 cases and a review of the literature.

    BACKGROUND: Diabetic mastopathy is an unusual fibroinflammatory breast lesion that characteristically presents in premenopausal women with long-standing type 1 diabetes mellitus with multiple microvascular complications. The pathogenesis of this condition is believed to involve an autoimmune reaction to the accumulation of abnormal matrix induced by hyperglycemia. Clinicopathologic features include the development of dense keloidlike breast masses that are often recurrent or bilateral or both. Clinical distinction from a malignancy can be difficult. However, the benign nature of this lesion is easily recognized on histologic examination, and it is not associated with an increased incidence of epithelial or stromal neoplasia. HYPOTHESIS: A constellation of histopathologic and clinical features is necessary to make the diagnosis of diabetic mastopathy. Unnecessary surgery can be avoided in the clinical follow-up of patients with multiple, bilateral, and recurrent lesions. DESIGN: Case series. patients AND methods: Between December 1993 and December 1998, 5 premenopausal women with type 1 diabetes mellitus of 18 to 23 years' duration presented with nontender, palpable, firm-to-hard breast masses. To date, progression of the tumorlike proliferations has been bilateral and recurrent in 2 patients, bilateral in a third patient, and recurrent in a fourth. The fifth patient has developed neither bilateral nor recurrent lesions. Imaging studies did not in any patient demonstrate a focal lesion. All lesions were treated by either excisional (4 patients) or core (1 patient) biopsy. The resected specimens were examined histopathologically. RESULTS: Gross examination of the specimens showed firm masses with homogeneous tannish-white cut surfaces. They measured between 3.0 and 6.0 cm in maximum diameter. Microscopic examination showed keloidal fibrosis with ductitis, lobulitis, and vasculitis. The clinical profile in combination with these pathologic features is characteristic of diabetic mastopathy. CONCLUSIONS: physicians should be aware of the association of long-standing diabetes mellitus with the development of benign fibroinflammatory breast lesions when managing these in premenopausal women. We outline the constellation of findings on clinical examination, medical history, imaging studies, and histopathologic examination that are required to make the diagnosis of diabetic mastopathy. Although these breast masses may be recurrent, they are not premalignant. In the appropriate setting, the diagnosis can be made by core biopsy, avoiding unnecessary surgeries in patients with multiple, bilateral, or recurrent lesions.
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2/28. fibroadenoma of the supernumerary breast of the axilla.

    Supernumerary breast or polymastia is a well documented anomaly of the breast, and commonly presents along the embryonic milk line extending between the axilla and groin. However, cases of polymastia have been recorded in the face, vulva and perineum. The clinical significances of these anomalies include their susceptibility to inflammatory and malignant changes, and their association with other congenital anomalies of the urinary and cardiovascular systems. The present article reports a case of fibroadenoma developing in the supernumerary breast of the right axilla in a 28 year old woman. Clinical and mammography examination of both breasts revealed no abnormalities and no lymph nodes were detected in the axillae or the neck. No associated urologic or cardiovascular abnormalities were found, and the histopathological examination of the excisional biopsy samples showed a well-defined, capsulated intracanalicular type of fibroadenoma similar to that of eutopic mammary tissue. The article also outlines the common congenital anomalies of the breast, and emphasizes on their proper clinical assessment for any other associated anomaly together with adequate surgical excision and regular follow up of the treated patients.
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3/28. Metastatic breast carcinoma mimicking periodontal disease on radiographs.

    BACKGROUND: Tumors can metastasize to the jaws, oral soft tissues, or salivary glands. Metastasis from distant organs and tissues to the jaws or oral cavity is considered rare. RESULTS: The mandible is the most common site of metastasis of the oral and maxillofacial region. Radiographically, there is usually an area of radiolucency with hazy outline. Such lesions are manifested as radiopaque or sclerotic areas. CONCLUSIONS: Radiographic view of a tumor in the present case mimicked a periodontal lesion with an osteolytic area around the roots.
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4/28. Fine needle aspiration cytology of apocrine carcinoma of the breast. review of cases in a three-year period.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the fine needle aspiration cytology findings of apocrine carcinoma of breast and correlate them with the histologic appearance. STUDY DESIGN: The author reviewed the fine needle aspiration cytology findings of two cases of pure apocrine carcinoma of the breast in the files of Pamela Youde Nethersole Eastern Hospital during a three-year period, 1998-2000. RESULTS: The cytologic findings in both cases were similar. The smears were of moderate to high cellularity, consisting of predominantly dispersed or loosely cohesive tumor cells in a focally granular background. The carcinoma cells contained abundant, dense to granular cytoplasm; round or oval and sometimes eccentrically located nuclei; a smooth nuclear outline; evenly dispersed chromatin; and solitary macronucleoli. The cell borders were mostly discrete. In contrast to benign apocrine cells, the malignant cells showed nuclear overlapping, more frequent nuclear pleomorphism, increased nuclear/cytoplasmic ratios and occasional mitotic figures. Histologic examination of the excised specimens showed extensive, solid apocrine carcinoma in situ with focal stromal invasion. CONCLUSION: Apocrine carcinoma, a subtype of breast carcinoma characterized mainly by its cytologic features, needs to be distinguished from benign apocrine lesions or other eosinophilic and granular cell tumors of the breast. Recognition of the subtle cytologic differences renders a definitive preoperative diagnosis possible.
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5/28. Failure to diagnose breast cancer.

    Case histories are based on actual medical negligence claims, however, certain facts have been omitted or changed by the author to ensure the anonymity of the parties involved. Failure to diagnose cancer is a relatively common cause of medical negligence claims against general practitioners. Most of these cases involve patients under the age of 40 years who are diagnosed with breast cancer. The most common causes of these claims are: the physical findings failed to impress the GP as suspicious failure of the GP to follow up the patient in a timely manner. This article outlines some risk management strategies for GPs to minimise the possibility of a claim arising from the failure to diagnose breast cancer.
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6/28. Cytology of pleomorphic lobular carcinoma with apocrine cell differentiation of the breast. A case report.

    BACKGROUND: Pleomorphic lobular carcinoma (PLC) with apocrine differentiation is a rare breast carcinoma, and its cytologic findings have not been reported before. CASE: A 75-year-old woman had a mass in and skin rash on the left breast. Apocrine carcinoma was suggested on aspiration cytology of the mass. The cytologic smears showed a small number of rounded to oval, atypical cells that were poorly cohesive and individually scattered. The cytoplasm was relatively abundant and contained coarse granules and dropletlike, orange granules (Lendrum's granules). The cell border was distinct. Some atypical cells had intracytoplasmic lumina. The nucleoli were round and prominent, and nuclear chromatin was finely granular. The background was clean. Histologically, the tumor cells proliferated mainly in an Indian file pattern and showed a concentric, targetoid pattern around the non-neoplastic ducts. The cytoplasm was abundant, eosinophilic, granular, positive for the periodic acid-schiff reaction and diastase resistant. Immunohistochemically the tumor cells were positive for gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15) and negative for E-cadherin. Lendrum's granules showed positive expression of GCDFP-15 and lysozyme. CONCLUSION: PLC with apocrine differentiation and apocrine carcinoma may be cytologically confused. Poor cellularity, less cohesiveness, finely granular chromatin, a nonpolyhedral cellular outline and clean background indicate the former rather than the latter. It is important to be aware that PLC presents a variety of cytologic configurations.
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7/28. pemphigus vulgaris induced by radiotherapy.

    pemphigus can be triggered or induced by many insults, such as drugs, infections, viruses and neoplasms. X-ray-induced pemphigus has been recorded only rarely in the literature. We describe the case of a woman with pemphigus vulgaris in remission, who relapsed 1 week after completion of an irradiation course for breast cancer, in the exact location of the radiation. We review the previous 15 cases from the literature and outline the common features of those cases.
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8/28. A pure primary squamous cell breast carcinoma presenting as a breast abscess: case report and review of literature.

    We report the fourth worldwide case of pure primary squamous cell carcinoma of the breast presenting as an abscess. An inflammatory breast lesion in postmenopausal woman must be suspected as a malignant one and drainage of the abscess has to be followed by an accurate excision. The finding of a pure squamous cell carcinoma bears the necessity of an accurate diagnostic work up, to exclude a skin lesion or a metastasis from other district. Also histological criteria are discussed. More difficult to outline therapeutic options, due to the rarity of disease and great difference in outcome observed.
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9/28. Clinical guidelines: breast cancer.

    Case histories are based on actual medical negligence claims, however, certain facts have been omitted or changed by the author to ensure the anonymity of the parties involved. Failure to diagnose breast cancer is a relatively common cause of complaints and claims involving general practitioners. This article examines the use of evidence based clinical guidelines and outlines some risk management strategies for GPs to minimise the possibility of a complaint or claim arising from an allegation of failure to diagnose breast cancer.
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10/28. Primary osteosarcoma of the breast.

    We report a case of primary osteosarcoma of the breast, which is a rare histological type of all breast tumors. A 58-year-old woman had noticed a right breast mass long before presenting to our hospital because it had gradually increased in size. The mass was bony-hard, 90 x 70 mm in size, and was located mainly in the upper outer quadrant of the left breast. mammography demonstrated a round radiopaque mass with a shaggy outline. There were small bone metastases to the pelvis and scapula on bone radionuclide scan, but no other metastasis was observed with subsequent investigations. Modified radical mastectomy including axillary lymph node dissection was performed. Histologically, the excised tumor was consistent with extraskeletal osteosarcoma of the breast accompanied by lymph node metastses. In spite of adjuvant chemotherapy, the patient suffered a local recurrence four months later and died of aggressive multiple metastases 7 months after surgery.
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