Cases reported "Bronchial Diseases"

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1/144. Broncholithiasis: rare but still present.

    Broncholithiasis is a rare but distinct and potentially dangerous pulmonary problem that still needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis of some patients with bronchial obstruction. Broncholiths originate from calcified material in peribronchial lymph nodes eroding into the tracheobronchial tree. The clinical and chest X-ray signs are usually non-specific, but the diagnosis can nowadays be made based on clinical suspicion, CT-scan and fibre-optic bronchoscopy findings, so that a malignant cause of airway obstruction can be ruled out. The removal of broncholiths during fibre-optic bronchoscopy is seldom possible and rather dangerous. They can be removed safely by rigid bronchoscopy with the aid of Nd-YAG laser photocoagulation. thoracotomy is indicated in complicated cases with fistula formation or severe bleeding.
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ranking = 1
keywords = airway obstruction, obstruction
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2/144. Progressive bronchial obstruction associated with toxic epidermal necrolysis.

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is an acute life-threatening condition, characterized by erosion of the mucous membranes, extensive detachment of the epidermis, and severe constitutional symptoms. Pulmonary complications of TEN are reported as rare, but are one of the most common causes of death. Our report focuses on an unusual case of toxic epidermal necrolysis which showed multiple bronchial obliteration during the chronic phase of the disease. Biopsied tissue of the obliterated bronchi demonstrated non-specific granulation. To improve the obliterated ventilatory function, we tried to reopen the bronchial obliteration using a balloon catheter under the guidance of fibreoptic bronchoscopy, however rapid restenosis of the bronchi ensued.
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ranking = 0.37844316654177
keywords = obstruction
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3/144. Bronchial mucormycosis with progressive air trapping.

    A previously healthy 70-year-old woman developed fever, cough, and exertional dyspnea. Her symptoms progressed over a 2-month period despite treatment by her primary care physician with 2 courses of oral antibiotics and the addition of prednisone. Hypoxemia and the finding of hyperglycemia with mild ketoacidosis led to hospital admission. Serial chest radiographs demonstrated diffuse heterogeneous pulmonary opacities and progressive air trapping in the right lower lobe. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed a deep penetrating ulcer with exposed bronchial cartilage of the bronchus intermedius and dynamic airway obstruction with complete closure during expiration. biopsy of the ulcer revealed rhizopus arrhizus. Respiratory failure stabilized with the patient on conventional mechanical ventilation and receiving amphotericin b. Before surgery could be performed, pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia and septic shock developed, and the patient died.
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ranking = 0.90538920836456
keywords = airway obstruction, obstruction
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4/144. Anterior mediastinal masses: an anaesthetic challenge.

    A patient with a large anterior mediastinal mass with minimal respiratory symptoms presented for a diagnostic biopsy of the mass. A pre-operative thoracic computed tomographic scan demonstrated narrowing of the distal trachea, and right and left main stem bronchi. An awake intubation was done. Thiopentone and muscle relaxant were given and surgery commenced. High airway pressure developed and ventilation became difficult, although oxygenation remained satisfactory throughout. Anaesthetic implications are discussed. We recommend that patients with more than 50% obstruction of the airway at the level of the lower trachea and main bronchi have their femoral vessels cannulated in readiness for cardiopulmonary bypass.
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ranking = 0.094610791635443
keywords = obstruction
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5/144. Bronchial obstruction after upper lobectomy: kinked bronchus relieved by stenting.

    Post resectional kinking of the lower lobe bronchus caused obstructive symptoms in 2 patients following upper lobectomy. Exaggerated upward displacement of the remaining lower lobe seemed to be causative. Intrabronchial stenting relieved the obstruction in each case with satisfactory intermediate term results.
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ranking = 0.47305395817721
keywords = obstruction
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6/144. Airway coccidioidomycosis--report of cases and review.

    infection due to coccidioides immitis usually begins in the lungs. Despite the initial pulmonary portal of entry, endotracheal and endobronchial coccidioidomycosis has rarely been described. Since the introduction of fiberoptic bronchoscopy and the AIDS epidemic, more C. immitis lesions of the large airways have been noted. We present data on 38 cases of coccidioidomycosis of the airways, including 6 cases detailed from our own experience and 32 from the literature. Direct infection of the airways (28 cases) is a more common mechanism of airways disease than is erosion into the airways from a lymph node (5 cases). Bronchoscopic findings vary and may show mucosal involvement or intrinsic obstruction. Endotracheal and endobronchial disease is not a self-limited disease and requires antifungal therapy. Disseminated disease in these patients is common. coccidioidomycosis must be considered in the differential diagnosis of airway pathology.
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ranking = 0.094610791635443
keywords = obstruction
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7/144. Bronchodilator responsiveness in a ventilator-dependent infant with severe tracheobronchomalacia.

    A neonatal case of severe, ventilator-dependent tracheobronchomalacia (TBM) is described. The extent of the malacic segment was determined by endoscopy and tracheobronchography. Additionally, relevant and ever increasing reversible peripheral airway obstruction was documented by measuring the mechanical properties of the respiratory system before and after salbutamol. With the combination of endoscopically guided aortopexy and salbutamol infusion, the infant was eventually weaned from mechanical ventilation at the age of 86 days. We speculate that in ventilator-dependent infants with severe TBM the determination of bronchodilator responsiveness may have clinical consequences.
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ranking = 0.90538920836456
keywords = airway obstruction, obstruction
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8/144. Left bronchial isomerism, normal atrial arrangement and bronchomalacia mimicking asthma: a new syndrome?

    Three children who presented with steroid-resistant airflow obstruction are described. They all had bronchomalacia in the setting of a rare visceral arrangement, namely left bronchial isomerism with normal atrial arrangement. Imaging and, in two cases, a normal residual volume in the face of severe airflow obstruction were diagnostic pointers to a nonasthmatic cause of wheeze. Although the association of these abnormalities may be coincidental, together they may constitute a new clinical syndrome.
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ranking = 0.18922158327089
keywords = obstruction
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9/144. Left upper lobe bronchus reimplantation for nonpenetrating thoracic trauma.

    Trauma to the tracheobronchial tree has been diagnosed and treated with increasing frequency over the last several decades. However, most reports have dealt with management of injuries to the trachea and main stem bronchi, as approximately 80% of blunt tracheobronchial injuries occur within this area. With few exceptions, injury to the lobar bronchi has resulted in thoracotomy and lobectomy. We describe a patient with an injury to the left upper lobe bronchus who presented with delayed obstruction of the airway by fibrogranulation tissue. A successful segmental resection of the bronchial occlusion with reimplantation was performed, thereby preserving the patient's otherwise normal left upper lobe. This case demonstrates that resection and reimplantation of an injured lobar bronchus are feasible, even in a delayed setting.
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ranking = 0.094610791635443
keywords = obstruction
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10/144. High dose rate brachytherapy to prevent recurrent benign hyperplasia in lung transplant bronchi: theoretical and clinical considerations.

    BACKGROUND: Significant anastomotic stenosis and malacia is reported to affect 7% to 15% of lung transplant recipients. Laser debridement, dilation and stenting can be used effectively to treat the majority of these patients. However, persistent, as well as reactive hyperplastic tissue reaction, will occur in some of these patients, requiring multiple bronchoscopic interventions. The experience of 2 patients who received intraluminal brachytherapy irradiation to prevent recurrence of hyperplastic tissue causing airway obstruction is reported. Both had failed multiple attempts of local control, including wall stent, laser ablation and balloon dilation. They suffered from shortness of breath and progressive decrease in quality of life because of airway obstruction. methods: Two patients received intraluminal irradiation immediately following removal of severe post-lung transplant obstruction. Both patients developed airway obstruction 3 to 4 months after left lung transplantation. High Dose Rate (HDR) brachytherapy (192Ir). Afterloader was used to treat Patient 1 on two occasions. Patient 2 required a single treatment. The radiation dose of 3Gy/fraction was calculated at 1 cm from the catheter for all applications. RESULTS: Follow up for both patients included bronchoscopy at 3 weeks, 3 months and 6 months after radiation therapy. Follow up for Patient 1 is 7 months, and patient 2 is 6 months. Each patient had an initial complete response after radiation. There were no treatment-related complications, and both patients experienced significant improvement in respiratory function. CONCLUSIONS: Symptomatic benign airway obstruction from hyperplastic tissue in the bronchus after lung transplantation can be successfully treated with intraluminal radiation therapy. patients who develop recurrent benign granulation tissue after stent and laser therapy may be considered for this type of treatment.
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ranking = 3.7161676250937
keywords = airway obstruction, obstruction
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