Cases reported "Bronchial Diseases"

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1/110. Progressive bronchial obstruction associated with toxic epidermal necrolysis.

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is an acute life-threatening condition, characterized by erosion of the mucous membranes, extensive detachment of the epidermis, and severe constitutional symptoms. Pulmonary complications of TEN are reported as rare, but are one of the most common causes of death. Our report focuses on an unusual case of toxic epidermal necrolysis which showed multiple bronchial obliteration during the chronic phase of the disease. Biopsied tissue of the obliterated bronchi demonstrated non-specific granulation. To improve the obliterated ventilatory function, we tried to reopen the bronchial obliteration using a balloon catheter under the guidance of fibreoptic bronchoscopy, however rapid restenosis of the bronchi ensued.
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ranking = 1
keywords = stenosis
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2/110. radiation-induced bronchial stenosis: a new cause of platypnea-orthodeoxia.

    Platypnea-orthodeoxia is encountered in a variety of cardiac, pulmonary, and hepatic disorders. We report its occurrence in a 59-year-old man who had had combined external-beam and high dose-rate iridium brachytherapy for a stage I non-small-cell carcinoma of the right upper lobe 2 years earlier. The post-radiation course was complicated by a severe radiation bronchitis; the onset of platypnea-orthodeoxia signalled the development of severe bronchial stenosis that was transiently relieved, initially by dilatation, and later by stent placement, though the patient ultimately died of a pulmonary hemorrhage. The dosage of brachytherapy given, the combined external-beam therapy, and the long survival after completion of radiation therapy were likely factors in the development of bronchial stenosis. We discuss the tomographic and bronchoscopic features of radiation-induced bronchial stenosis.
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ranking = 7
keywords = stenosis
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3/110. Fatal complication of an expandable metallic bronchial stent.

    A case of massive fatal haemoptysis secondary to erosion of a Gianturco expandable wire bronchial stent is described. The stent had been inserted for a benign bronchial stenosis. CT demonstrated erosion of the stent through the oesophagus and a false aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta. The CT and plain radiographic appearances are presented. The potential for progressive migration and local damage should limit the use of this type of stent in benign bronchial stenoses.
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ranking = 1
keywords = stenosis
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4/110. Severe tracheobronchial stenosis in a patient with Crohn's disease.

    Tracheobronchial involvement in Crohn's disease is rare, usually associated with symptoms of tracheobronchitis, and typically responds well to steroids. The authors report a case of a 29-yr old patient with Crohn's disease, who presented with dyspnoea, fever, and a productive cough. Computed tomography of the chest revealed extensive nodular tracheobronchial stenosis, that was accompanied by severe mucosal inflammation at bronchoscopy. High-dose oral steroids diminished the mucosal inflammation, but had limited efficacy on the underlying tracheobronchial stenosis. It is speculated that this relative ineffectiveness of steroids may be due to the persistence of the untreated inflammatory process.
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ranking = 6
keywords = stenosis
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5/110. High dose rate brachytherapy to prevent recurrent benign hyperplasia in lung transplant bronchi: theoretical and clinical considerations.

    BACKGROUND: Significant anastomotic stenosis and malacia is reported to affect 7% to 15% of lung transplant recipients. Laser debridement, dilation and stenting can be used effectively to treat the majority of these patients. However, persistent, as well as reactive hyperplastic tissue reaction, will occur in some of these patients, requiring multiple bronchoscopic interventions. The experience of 2 patients who received intraluminal brachytherapy irradiation to prevent recurrence of hyperplastic tissue causing airway obstruction is reported. Both had failed multiple attempts of local control, including wall stent, laser ablation and balloon dilation. They suffered from shortness of breath and progressive decrease in quality of life because of airway obstruction. methods: Two patients received intraluminal irradiation immediately following removal of severe post-lung transplant obstruction. Both patients developed airway obstruction 3 to 4 months after left lung transplantation. High Dose Rate (HDR) brachytherapy (192Ir). Afterloader was used to treat Patient 1 on two occasions. Patient 2 required a single treatment. The radiation dose of 3Gy/fraction was calculated at 1 cm from the catheter for all applications. RESULTS: Follow up for both patients included bronchoscopy at 3 weeks, 3 months and 6 months after radiation therapy. Follow up for Patient 1 is 7 months, and patient 2 is 6 months. Each patient had an initial complete response after radiation. There were no treatment-related complications, and both patients experienced significant improvement in respiratory function. CONCLUSIONS: Symptomatic benign airway obstruction from hyperplastic tissue in the bronchus after lung transplantation can be successfully treated with intraluminal radiation therapy. patients who develop recurrent benign granulation tissue after stent and laser therapy may be considered for this type of treatment.
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ranking = 1
keywords = stenosis
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6/110. Trepopnea due to recurrent lung cancer.

    Trepopnea is a condition whereby breathing may be comfortable in one position but difficult or labored in another. A unique case with trepopnea due to recurrent lung cancer with right main pulmonary artery stenosis and left main bronchus obstruction is presented. The patient had developed trepopnea 3 months earlier, but developed orthopnea shortly before he was admitted to our hospital. An emergent wall stent implantation was performed via the right femoral vein in the sitting position with the patient's leg stretched out. The symptoms and respiratory function improved after stent implantation.
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ranking = 1
keywords = stenosis
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7/110. Granulation stenosis caused by a Dumon stent placed for endobronchial tuberculous stenosis.

    Two patients with cicatric tracheobronchial stenosis caused by tuberculosis who suffered granulation stenosis after placement of a Dumon stent are reported. Dumon stents, which were long enough to cover the stenotic sites, were placed in the trachea and left main bronchus of each patient. granulation tissue grew at both edges of the stent 3 or 4 months after stent placement, which caused restenosis and necessitated removal of the stents. The authors conclude that a Dumon stent for treatment of tracheobronchial stenosis caused by tuberculosis can cause granulation stenosis at the edges of the stent.
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ranking = 13
keywords = stenosis
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8/110. Bronchostenosis due to childhood tuberculosis and manifested as an asymptomatic mass.

    We report a case of bronchostenosis manifested as an asymptomatic mass on preoperative chest roentgenogram. Bronchoscopic biopsy inadvertently led to drainage of the obstructed bronchus. The various pathogenic origins of bronchostenosis are discussed, with the most likely cause in this case being previous tuberculosis.
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ranking = 6
keywords = stenosis
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9/110. Topical amphotericin b application in severe bronchial aspergillosis after lung transplantation: report of experiences in 3 cases.

    Ulcerative tracheobronchial aspergillosis after lung transplantation (ltx) may lead to bronchial-pulmonary artery fistula that results in fatal bleeding. We report our early experience with combined systemic, aerolized and topical application of amphotericin b in 3 cases of bronchial aspergillosis after ltx. Two patients are still alive, but 1 died of bleeding from a fistula between the left upper lobe bronchus and the pulmonary artery. aspergillosis in the second patient resolved with minimal stenosis of the left main and the left upper lobe bronchus, and the third patient developed an anastomotic stenosis that was successfully dilated.
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ranking = 2
keywords = stenosis
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10/110. Inflammatory endobronchial stenosis.

    We encountered a 71-year-old woman with inoperable bronchial stenosis of the right main bronchus, which was caused by inflammatory granulation infected with pseudomonas aeruginosa in posttuberculous bronchiectasis. Two months after placement of self-expanding nitinol stents, fiberoptic bronchoscopic examination to investigate hemosputum revealed endobronchial granuloma formation. Endobronchial granulation has disappeared with long-term oral administration of tranilast.
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ranking = 5
keywords = stenosis
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