Cases reported "Bronchial Diseases"

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1/576. Broncholithiasis: rare but still present.

    Broncholithiasis is a rare but distinct and potentially dangerous pulmonary problem that still needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis of some patients with bronchial obstruction. Broncholiths originate from calcified material in peribronchial lymph nodes eroding into the tracheobronchial tree. The clinical and chest X-ray signs are usually non-specific, but the diagnosis can nowadays be made based on clinical suspicion, CT-scan and fibre-optic bronchoscopy findings, so that a malignant cause of airway obstruction can be ruled out. The removal of broncholiths during fibre-optic bronchoscopy is seldom possible and rather dangerous. They can be removed safely by rigid bronchoscopy with the aid of Nd-YAG laser photocoagulation. thoracotomy is indicated in complicated cases with fistula formation or severe bleeding. ( info)

2/576. Endobronchial stenting for extrinsic compression caused by pulsatile pulmonary artery in a 4-week-old infant.

    Respiratory compromise secondary to external vascular compression may complicate the course of infants and neonates undergoing repair of congeni tal heart disease. Management of such complications usually involves prolonged ventilatory support and even additional high-risk surgical procedures. In recent years, endobronchial placement of self-expanding stents became a realistic treatment option, although there is controversy as to which of the many stents available today give the best results. We report the first successful endobronchial placement of a self-expanding stent in a 4-week-old infant. This conservative treatment for extrinsic airway compression led to the rapid extubation and recovery of the patient. ( info)

3/576. A resuscitated case from asphyxia by large bronchial cast.

    A 62-year-old woman with bronchiectasis suffered from asphyxia due to a large bronchial cast that obstructed the bronchial tree. Immediate bronchoscopic suction of a bronchial cast of 17 cm in length through the intubated tube relieved the patients without any complications. Large bronchial casts appear to be rare in this century but it should be considered in patients with acute exacerbation of excessive sputa not only in patients with asthma or allergy but also in patients with respiratory tract infection. ( info)

4/576. Radiologic differential diagnosis. Radiologic pattern: solitary cavity.

    The differential diagnosis of a left lower lobe cavity in this young patient with a history of productive cough should include hiatal hernia, pulmonary abscess, bronchiectatic cyst and bronchopulmonary sequestration. Hiatal hernia should be ruled out by barium swallow; acute pulmonary abscess by the lack of a history suggestive of a necrotizing pneumonia; bronchiectasis by bronchogram; and intralobar bronchopulmonary sequestration should be confirmed by aortography. ( info)

5/576. A case of endobronchial endometriosis treated by subsegmentectomy.

    We present a case of endobronchial endometriosis with catamenial hemoptysis. The lesion was diagnosed as endobronchial endometriosis using helical CT, and the patient underwent a subsegmentectomy of the upper part of the lateral basal segment. A histopathologic examination of the resected specimen revealed findings typical of endobronchial endometriosis with intimal hyperplasia within the bronchus. Since the operation, the patient has been asymptomatic for 11 months with no recurrence of hemoptysis. ( info)

6/576. Progressive bronchial obstruction associated with toxic epidermal necrolysis.

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is an acute life-threatening condition, characterized by erosion of the mucous membranes, extensive detachment of the epidermis, and severe constitutional symptoms. Pulmonary complications of TEN are reported as rare, but are one of the most common causes of death. Our report focuses on an unusual case of toxic epidermal necrolysis which showed multiple bronchial obliteration during the chronic phase of the disease. Biopsied tissue of the obliterated bronchi demonstrated non-specific granulation. To improve the obliterated ventilatory function, we tried to reopen the bronchial obliteration using a balloon catheter under the guidance of fibreoptic bronchoscopy, however rapid restenosis of the bronchi ensued. ( info)

7/576. Right aortic arch, right ligamentum, absent left pulmonary artery: a rare vascular ring.

    A 5-month-old infant presented with respiratory failure secondary to severe right bronchial compression. diagnostic imaging revealed a right aortic arch and absent left pulmonary artery. Surgical relief was obtained via median sternotomy by dividing a right ligamentum and pexing the enlarged right pulmonary artery to the ascending aorta. ( info)

8/576. Intrabronchial aspergillus nidulans infection in an immunocompetent man.

    We describe the first report of intrabronchial aspergillus nidulans infection in an immunocompetent patient, which fit the description of bronchocentric granulomatosis. The patient had a history of accidental aspiration of light grade oil. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed that the right B4aii alpha was obstructed. Endobronchial biopsy specimens contained fungal hyphae. The fungus was confirmed to be aspergillus nidulans by culture. We suspected that aspiration of light grade oil had injured the bronchial mucosa, after which airborne aspergillus nidulans had entered the lesion and multiplied. Intrabronchial fungal infection can occur in a healthy person without immunologic abnormalities, if a bronchial lesion provides an entry portal. ( info)

9/576. Endobronchial actinomycosis simulating endobronchial tuberculosis: a case report.

    We report a case of a 70-year-old woman who presented with mild exertional dyspnea and cough. Fiberoptic bronchoscopic findings revealed an endobronchial polypoid lesion with stenotic bronchus. The lesion was very similar to endobronchial tuberculosis. Histologic examination of the biopsy specimen demonstrated actinomyces infection. There was a clinical response to intravenous penicillin therapy. Primary endobronchial actinomycosis must be considered in the differential diagnosis of an endobronchial lesion, especially endobronchial tuberculosis in korea. ( info)

10/576. Bronchial mucormycosis with progressive air trapping.

    A previously healthy 70-year-old woman developed fever, cough, and exertional dyspnea. Her symptoms progressed over a 2-month period despite treatment by her primary care physician with 2 courses of oral antibiotics and the addition of prednisone. Hypoxemia and the finding of hyperglycemia with mild ketoacidosis led to hospital admission. Serial chest radiographs demonstrated diffuse heterogeneous pulmonary opacities and progressive air trapping in the right lower lobe. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed a deep penetrating ulcer with exposed bronchial cartilage of the bronchus intermedius and dynamic airway obstruction with complete closure during expiration. biopsy of the ulcer revealed rhizopus arrhizus. Respiratory failure stabilized with the patient on conventional mechanical ventilation and receiving amphotericin b. Before surgery could be performed, pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia and septic shock developed, and the patient died. ( info)
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