Cases reported "Bronchial Fistula"

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1/36. Bronchoperitoneal fistula secondary to chronic klebsiella pneumoniae subphrenic abscess.

    We treated a case of bronchoperitoneal fistula secondary to a klebsiella pneumoniae subphrenic abscess. This fistulous communication and the surgical procedure used to treat it are described.
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2/36. Bronchobiliary fistula after hemihepatectomy: cholangiopancreaticography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance cholangiography findings.

    A bronchobiliary fistula (BBF), which is defined by an abnormal communication between the biliary system and the bronchial tree, is an uncommon complication after hemihepatectomy, trauma, hydatid disease, choledocholithiasis and other causes of biliary obstruction. We report the case of a 56-year-old man with colon cancer, who developed a BBF 2 months after right hemihepatectomy for liver metastases. The findings at endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography (ERCP), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) included a stricture of the common bile duct and biliary leakage from the liver resection plane with biliary infiltration of the right lower lobe of the lung. The patient was treated successfully by endoscopic insertion of a biliary plastic stent which bridged the stricture and lead to closure of the fistula.
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3/36. Aorto-bronchial fistula after implantation of a self-expanding bronchial stent in a patient with aortic dissection.

    We report a case of aorto-bronchial fistula after implantation of a self-expanding stent into the left main bronchus compressed by a dissected descending aorta. A 66-year-old female, who underwent Stanford type-B aortic dissection two years previously, was admitted to our hospital for the treatment of a newly developed false lumen that originated from the ascending aorta and extended to the aortic bifurcation. She was unable to be weaned from the respirator after the graft replacement of the ascending aorta. Fiberoptic bronchoscopic examination revealed complete obstruction of the left main bronchus by extrinsic compression. A self-expanding nitinol stent was implanted in the left main bronchus five days after the operation. Her respiratory condition improved remarkably, allowing her to be successfully weaned from the respirator. Her clinical course was uneventful until she suddenly died from massive hemoptysis 20 days after stent implantation. A communication of 5 mm in diameter between the dissected descending aorta and the left main bronchus was seen at autopsy. Permanent application of a self-expanding nitinol stent to relieve extrinsic compression of a left main bronchus by a dissected descending aorta is not recommended because pressure necrosis might lead to fatal aorto-bronchial fistula.
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4/36. Congenital broncho-esophageal fistula in the adult.

    The case of a 62-year-old woman with a type II congenital broncho-esophageal fistula is presented. She had had recurrent pulmonary infections that were more prominent in the last 15 years. A barium swallow examination showed a communication between the esophagus and the right lower lobe. High resolution computed tomographic scan of the chest revealed right middle and lower lobe bronchiectasis. bronchoscopy was unremarkable. At thoracotomy bronchoesophageal fistula was divided and the esophageal end was repaired in two layered fashion and reinforced by pediculed parietal pleural flap. Right middle and lower lobectomies were performed. Demonstration of the broncho-esophageal fistula and assessment of the status of the pulmonary parenchyma are important steps prior to surgery.
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5/36. Late development of aortic pseudoaneurysm after coarctation repair with fistulization to the bronchial tree. A case report.

    BACKGROUND: Fistulous communication between the aorta and the tracheobronchial tree is an uncommon and serious cause of hemoptysis secondary to complications of a previous operation performed on the aorta. In cases in which an appropriate surgical intervention is carried out, the survival rate approaches 76%. This surgery is considered one of the most risky operations on the aorta, challenging the surgeon's ability to resolve the problem. methods: We present the case report of a 43-year-old female with massive hemoptysis. Her medical history disclosed repair of coarctation of the aorta (15 years before). She underwent emergency left thoracotomy; surgical exploration revealed a false aneurysm from the previous aortic patch repair which communicated to a subsegmental bronchus of the left upper lobe. RESULTS: The thoracic aorta was isolated and clamped, and the previous patch was removed. The bronchial side of the fistula was managed with left superior lobectomy and the aorta was repaired with the placement of a coated woven dacron graft onto healthy aortic tissue. CONCLUSIONS: The patient had an uneventful recovery and remains asymptomatic six months after discharge.
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6/36. Metallic cough and pyogenic liver abscess.

    The curious symptom of a metallic cough in association with a pyogenic hepatic abscess should heighten awareness of a fistula. We describe a 78-year-old female with severe diverticular disease, on long-term steroid treatment for polymyalgia rheumatica. She developed a pyogenic liver abscess, treated initially by antimicrobial therapy, and subsequently drained by ultrasound and computed tomography-guided percutaneous transhepatic pigtail catheterization. This was complicated by a fistulous communication between the abscess cavity and the bronchus, confirmed by radiology. After repeated attempts at drainage and antimicrobial therapy the abscess cavity, including the hepatobronchial fistula, resolved.
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7/36. A double fistula, broncho-cavitary-cutaneous communication caused by cancer invasion.

    Pulmonary infection with cavitation causes severe respiratory symptoms if the cavity has a communication with main bronchus, through which fluid flows out into trachea. In this report a young male with lung cancer invading an adjacent pre-existent fungus cavitary lesion is presented. Cancer invasion led to broncho-cavitary communication and caused massive intrabronchial aspiration. Subsequently, the cancer destroyed the thoracic wall, and a cavitary-cutaneous fistula developed which relieved symptoms as if treated with open drainage.
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8/36. Biliary-bronchial fistula demonstrated by endoscopic retrograde cholangiography.

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography is valuable in the evaluation of biliary tract disorders. A 50-year-old Italian woman developed biloptysis 1 year after cholecystectomy because of intrabiliary rupture of a hydatid cyst with secondary infection, which resulted in intrathoracic rupture and communication with the bronchial tree. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography showed the cause and pathway of the fistulous tract by outlining the biliary tree, abscess cavity and communication with the right upper lobe bronchus. This technique appears to be well suited to the investigation of patients with biliary-bronchial fistula.
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9/36. Management of neonatal bronchovenous fistula after cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Bronchovenous fistula is occasionally encountered after traumatic lung injury or, in neonates, due to ventilation injuries with high ventilatory pressures. We report a case of massive air embolism associated with a bronchopulmonary venous communication in an infant post-repair of truncus arteriosus. Selective ventilation of the opposite lung for 3 days sealed the fistula.
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10/36. Delayed closure of persistent postpneumonectomy bronchopleural fistula.

    A 73-year-old man with a history of postpneumonectomy empyema and a long-term chest tube since 1979 presented with fever, chills, leukocytosis, and purulent fluid from the left tube thoracostomy. CT scan and bronchoscopy demonstrated a right lower lobe pneumonia and a left mainstem dehiscence with direct communication to the left tube thoracostomy. He underwent primary closure of the bronchopleural fistula with latissimus dorsi muscle flap coverage after antibiotic therapy for right lower lobe pneumonia.
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