Cases reported "Bronchial Fistula"

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1/59. Ingested ring-pull causing bronchoesophageal fistula and transection of the left main bronchus: successful salvage of the left lung and esophagus five years after injury.

    A 6-year-old girl with a history of ingestion of a ring-pull of a can and a transient episode of stridor had been asymptomatic 3 years before admission when left lung atelectasis with severe respiratory distress developed. fluoroscopy and 3-dimensional computed tomography scan showed bronchoesophageal fistula and the ring-pull around the left main bronchus. At operation, the ring-pull, which transected the left main bronchus, was extracted. The left main bronchus was reconstructed by end-to-end anastomosis in spite of insufficient inflation of the collapsed left lung. The esophageal defect was repaired. The patient's respiratory distress gradually disappeared, and the x-ray films 3 months after operation showed complete expansion of the left lung. This case shows the risk of the long-term retained esophageal foreign body and the possibility of pulmonary salvage after long-term total atelectasis of the lung.
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2/59. Esophagobronchial fistula combined with a peptic esophageal stenosis.

    Peptic strictures are a rare complication of severe gastroesophageal reflux disease. An esophagobronchial fistula as a complication of a severe long-term reflux esophagitis with peptic stenosis is here described for the first time: A 43-year-old mentally disabled patient suffered from recurrent bronchopneumonia. endoscopy revealed an esophagobronchial fistula originating in a peptic stricture. Under short-term fasting, intravenous feeding and application of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) closure of this fistula was achieved within 4 days. Subsequently, dilatation was carried out. The case demonstrates that pulmonary complications in patients with peptic esophageal strictures may not only be due to aspiration of refluxate but--rarely--also to fistulae between the esophagus and the bronchial tree.
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3/59. Congenital broncho-esophageal fistula in the adult.

    The case of a 62-year-old woman with a type II congenital broncho-esophageal fistula is presented. She had had recurrent pulmonary infections that were more prominent in the last 15 years. A barium swallow examination showed a communication between the esophagus and the right lower lobe. High resolution computed tomographic scan of the chest revealed right middle and lower lobe bronchiectasis. bronchoscopy was unremarkable. At thoracotomy bronchoesophageal fistula was divided and the esophageal end was repaired in two layered fashion and reinforced by pediculed parietal pleural flap. Right middle and lower lobectomies were performed. Demonstration of the broncho-esophageal fistula and assessment of the status of the pulmonary parenchyma are important steps prior to surgery.
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4/59. A rare complication of surgical management for esophageal tumor: a non neoplastic belated fistula between stomach and main right bronchus.

    The fistula between stomach and bronchus after surgery for cancer of the esophagus is a rare occurrence. We describe a gastric non neoplastic ulceration that arose late after six years from an esophagectomy, with an end-side cervical esophagogastrostomy, for a spino-cellular carcinoma. After the partial failure of surgical technique, of the endoscopic treatment and for the bad general conditions of patient we decided to treat the fistula by transluminal drainage. This technique involved a progressive resolution of the fistula, becoming, nowadays, in our division, the preferred treatment for these kinds of postoperative complications.
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5/59. Boerhaave-mimicking esophageal perforation with subsequent esophagobronchial fistula formation as the primary manifestation of Crohn's disease.

    BACKGROUND: Spontaneous ruptures of the esophagus are rare, but may lead to deleterious courses, even if diagnosed early. CASE REPORT: We report a case of Boerhaave's syndrome-mimicking esophageal perforation due to a stricture of the distal esophagus as the primary manifestation of Crohn's disease. diagnosis was delayed resulting in a complicated clinical course. The presented patient is the first case in the literature with esophageal perforation related to a previously undiagnosed Crohn's disease that lead to stenosis of the distal esophagus before becoming clinically apparent. CONCLUSION: Difficulties in differential diagnosis, problems related to initial misdiagnosis and consecutive mismanagment of spontaneous esophageal perforation, and treatment options including nonsurgical approaches are discussed.
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6/59. aortic aneurysm involving a right-sided arch complicating aortobronchopulmonary and aortoesophageal fistula.

    A 66-year-old man with hemoptysis, chest pain, fever, and hoarseness was admitted to our department. A right-sided aortic arch and three aneurysms in the proximal arch, distal arch, and descending aorta were confirmed by aortography and surgery. Fistula formations were discovered between the proximal arch aneurysm and the right upper lobe (aortobronchopulmonary fistula: ABF), and between the descending aorta and the esophagus (aortoesophageal fistula: AEF). Concomitant ABF and AEF are very rare. Aortopulmonary and/or aortoesophageal fistula complicated by a right-sided aortic arch have not been previously reported.
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7/59. Congenital bronchoesophageal fistula and tracheoesophageal fistula with esophageal atresia.

    A case of initial esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula in a female newborn, later complicated by pneumonia and a second bronchoesophageal fistula, is reported. She was treated surgically by closure of the tracheoesophageal fistula and by end-to-end esophago-esophageal anastomosis. An esophagram at 1 month of age was normal. Three months later she developed severe, persistent right lower lobe pneumonia that required intensive antibiotic therapy and respiratory support. Esophagography was repeated and revealed a second fistula between the right main-stem bronchus and the lower esophagus. The bronchoesophageal fistula was repaired, and a right lower lobectomy was performed. Postoperative recovery was uncomplicated. Histologic examination indicated that the fistula was congenital in origin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a congenital bronchoesophageal fistula coexisting with a tracheoesophageal fistula and esophageal atresia.
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8/59. Perforating Barrett's ulcer resulting in a life-threatening esophagobronchial fistula.

    Perforating benign ulcer is a very rare complication of Barrett's esophagus. This report presents the management of a patient with a Barrett's ulcer that penetrated into the left mainstem bronchus resulting in a life-threatening bronchial esophageal fistula. This rare complication was successfully managed by using a staged surgical approach, which combined the principles used for treating benign esophagorespiratory fistulas and perforating Barrett's ulcers.
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9/59. Covered metallic stent treatment of a patient with spontaneous rupture of the esophagus.

    A patient with a potentially fatal condition as a result of esophago-pneumo-broncho fistula was successfully treated with the insertion of a self-expanded covered metallic stent. Severe regurgitation resulted in the removal of the stent 3 months after insertion. Stricture after removal of the stent required pneumatic balloon dilation. The use of a self-expanded covered metallic stent is effective for the treatment of spontaneous esophageal rupture; however, early removal of the stent is recommended.
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10/59. Oesophagobronchial fistula caused by varicella zoster virus in a patient with AIDS: a unique case.

    Human herpesvirus oesophagitis in human immunodeficiency virus positive patients is caused by cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus; no cases of oesophagitis and oesophagobrochial fistula as a result of varicella zoster virus (VZV) have been reported to date. This report describes the case of a patient with a 2-3 mm deep oesophageal ulcer whose viral culture was positive for VZV. The patient was treated with acyclovir with resolution of the symptomatology. After the end of the induction treatment, because of the onset of fever and fits of coughing during eating, the patient underwent oesophagography, which showed an ulcer with an oesophagobronchial fistula in the middle and lower third of the oesophagus. This case report stresses the role of VZV infection as a possible cause of oesophagobronchial fistula, a rare but benign condition in patients with AIDS.
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