Cases reported "Bronchial Neoplasms"

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1/824. Endobronchial brachytherapy for recurrent thymoma showing endobronchial polypoid growth.

    The authors report a case of recurrent thymoma displaying endobronchial polypoid growth. Initially, the patient had invasive thymoma with intracaval growth into the right atrium. He was treated with multimodality therapy consisting of chemotherapy, surgical resection, and radiotherapy (50.4 Gy). Both 3 years and 6 years after the initial treatment, the tumor recurred outside the reconstructed superior vena cava. The patient was treated with repeated radiotherapy (50.4 Gy and 40 Gy), and remission was achieved. Eight years after the first therapy, an endobronchial polypoid lesion was detected in the right upper lobe bronchus and was histologically found to be thymoma. Endobronchial high-dose rate brachytherapy (20 Gy at 3 mm/5 fractions) was carried out for palliation because the recurrent tumor occurred outside of the superior vena cava area, which had been reirradiated. After the treatment, the endobronchial tumor shrunk remarkably in size without adverse effects. No tumor regrowth has been noted after a follow-up of 10 months. ( info)

2/824. Coronary spasm and cardiac arrest from carcinoid crisis during laser bronchoscopy.

    Bronchoscopic manipulation of an endobronchial carcinoid can precipitate a carcinoid crisis. Coronary artery spasm is an uncommon manifestation of carcinoid crisis, and has never been reported as a complication of flexible bronchoscopy. We report a case of a 10-year-old girl who developed coronary artery spasm and cardiac arrest during neodymiumyttrium aluminum garnet (Nd-YAG) laser photoresection of an endobronchial carcinoid. Recognition of this unusual presentation of a carcinoid crisis is important as the treatment approach differs from standard resuscitation protocols. ( info)

3/824. Bone metastases from bronchial carcinoid tumors. Two case-reports.

    Two case-reports of metastatic bone disease in patients with bronchial carcinoid tumors illustrate the diagnostic challenges raised by these slowly-growing malignancies of which the primary frequently escapes early identification. The first patient had the typical picture of a primary with a single bone metastasis. Unusual features in the second patient were the large number of bone metastases, involvement of distal skeletal sites, and elevation of serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels. ( info)

4/824. IgA antiglomerular basement membrane disease associated with bronchial carcinoma and monoclonal gammopathy.

    Antiglomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) disease is characterized by a linear deposition of immunoglobulins along the glomerular basement membrane. A 67-year-old man with a recently discovered monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS) presented with microscopic hematuria, nephrotic-range proteinuria, and rapidly deteriorating renal function after a pneumonia. Renal histology showed a crescentic glomerulonephritis; immunohistology showed intense linear staining of the GBM with immunoglobulin a (IgA) and moderate linear staining with kappa and lambda light chains. Screening for systemic disease, including diabetes mellitus, lupus erythematodes disseminatus, cryoglobulinemia, was negative. Serological tests for detection of anti-GBM antibodies were positive for IgA class and negative for IgG. Further examination indicated a bronchial carcinoma T2N2M0. This clinical report adds new information to the spectrum of anti-GBM disease and suggests that neoplasia may be associated with unusual exposure of and/or immune response to epitopes in the GBM. ( info)

5/824. Endobronchial metastasis of glioblastoma multiforme diagnosed by fiberoptic bronchoscopic biopsy.

    We report a case of extraneural metastasis of an intracranial glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) to the left upper lung, in which fiberoptic bronchoscopy played a key role in the diagnosis. The patient, a 20-year-old woman, presented with dry cough and hoarseness 2 years after total excision of the brain tumor and postoperative radiotherapy. Tissue samples obtained during fiberoptic bronchoscopic biopsy had the same morphologic appearance as the primary intracranial tumor, which was consistent with GBM. In cases of pulmonary metastasis of GBM, antemortem diagnosis is rare. Our experience from this case suggests that fiberoptic bronchoscopy may be a valuable diagnostic tool for metastatic GBM. ( info)

6/824. Granular cell myoblastoma (schwannoma) of the carina in a patient with sarcoidosis.

    The sixth case report of granular cell myoblastoma (schwannoma) of the carina, occurring in a 22-year-old black woman, is presented. Incidental coexistent carcoidosis was present. The various theories of the histogenesis of the lesion are reviewed briefly. ( info)

7/824. Carcinoid tumours presenting as breast cancer: the utility of radionuclide imaging with 123I-MIBG and 111In-DTPA pentetreotide.

    Secondary tumours of any type in the breast are rare. A review of the literature demonstrated only 23 cases of carcinoid tumours with associated breast metastasis, as distinct from primary carcinoid tumours of the breast. Distant metastases from carcinoid tumours are correlated with poor prognosis and survival. Although both primary and metastatic mammary carcinoid tumours are uncommon, the recognition of the true origin of the tumours may be of importance owing to the different clinical management and prognosis of the two conditions. Recently, radionuclide-labelled imaging techniques have been applied to the localization of such lesions, based on isotope uptake by receptors present in these neuroendocrine tumours. We report two new cases of carcinoid tumours with breast metastases, the primaries being in the ileocaecal valve and the bronchus, respectively. The diagnosis of a carcinoid tumour was based on the clinical, biochemical, histopathological and immunostaining features. Furthermore, these patients had both 123I-MIBG and 111In pentetreotide scintigraphy performed. These radionuclides play a useful role in the localization and potentially in the management of carcinoid tumours and their distant metastases. ( info)

8/824. Helical computed tomographic minimum-intensity projection of a slit in an airway obstruction.

    We treated a 54-year-old man with an anastomotic obstruction after a right upper sleeve lobectomy. By using minimum intensity projection images that were generated from helical computed tomographic data sets that indicated a twisted slit enhanced with air a few millimeters in length, through anastomosis to the distal bronchus, we successfully treated the obstruction by bronchoscopic balloon dilatation. ( info)

9/824. Delayed massive hemoptysis after expandable bronchial stent placement.

    patients with lung cancer often develop airway obstruction that necessitates palliative bronchoscopic interventions. Expandable metal stents are increasingly used for this indication. We report a case of fatal massive hemoptysis that occurred 1 week after uneventful bronchial stent placement. Previous treatment with external-beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy, and photodynamic therapy probably contributed to pulmonary artery-bronchial fistulization in this patient. This complication should be kept in mind when considering expandable airway stent insertion in heavily pretreated lung cancer patients. ( info)

10/824. Endobronchial metastasis from stomach cancer.

    A young woman presented with a dry cough present during the previous 4 weeks. A chest radiograph demonstrated diffuse interstitial infiltration in both lower lung fields. Fibreoptic bronchoscopic examination revealed multiple 2-3 mm elevated nodules on the bronchial surface and a mucosal biopsy showed extensive subepithelial infiltration of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma without definite precancerous alteration in the overlying epithelium. Studies for the evaluation of primary tumour focus were performed. Oesophagogastroduodenoscopy showed advanced gastric cancer of Borrmann type III, and mucosal biopsy of the stomach showed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. The patient was treated three times with systemic chemotherapy, but her condition deteriorated. Three months after diagnosis, she died of complicated pneumonia. This is a rare case of endobronchial metastasis from stomach cancer. The stomach is an unusual site of endobronchial metastasis from extrathoracic primary malignancy. ( info)
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