Cases reported "Bronchial Spasm"

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1/64. Retrospective study of bitolterol mesylate in the treatment of conditions associated with reversible bronchospasm.

    patients with reversible bronchospasm benefit from the use of inhaled beta-adrenergic agents. In this retrospective study of 24 older patients with a variety of conditions associated with reversible bronchospasm--asthma, asthma with emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and asthmatic bronchitis--symptomatic improvement was noted after treatment with inhaled bitolterol mesylate. Symptoms resolved or improved after 1 month in 93.8% (15/16) of patients using a metered-dose inhaler and in 75% (6/8) of those using a hand-held nebulizer. Sixteen additional patients were randomly selected to undergo pulmonary function tests after receiving two to three puffs of bitolterol from a metered-dose inhaler. FEV1 improved by 10.9%, FVC by 12.1%, and FEF25%-75% by 34.4% after administration of bitolterol. No adverse events were noted in any patients in either group. The results of this retrospective study suggest that bitolterol is an effective and safe treatment in patients with conditions associated with reversible bronchospasm.
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2/64. Disappearance of wheezing during epidural lidocaine anesthesia in a patient with bronchial asthma.

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Local anesthetics in blood absorbed from the epidural space attenuate bronchial hyperreactivity to chemical stimuli. However, it is not documented whether local anesthetics at clinically relevant concentrations improve active wheezing in patients with bronchial asthma. CASE REPORT: We managed a 60-year-old man with bronchial asthma and active wheezing under continuous epidural anesthesia using plain lidocaine. The wheezing gradually diminished 20 minutes after the epidural injection of 13 mL 2% lidocaine and completely disappeared over 155 minutes during continuous epidural injection of 2% lidocaine (6 mL/h). The plasma concentrations of lidocaine in arterial blood during the epidural anesthesia ranged from 2.5 to 3.9 microg/mL. Wheezing reappeared 55 minutes after termination of the continuous epidural injection of lidocaine. The plasma concentration of lidocaine at this time was 1.9 microg/mL. CONCLUSIONS: At clinically relevant concentrations, lidocaine in the blood absorbed from the epidural space may improve bronchospasm in patients with bronchial asthma.
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3/64. defecation-induced bronchospasm.

    Acute asthma exacerbations are common. patients with asthma experience symptoms in response to a wide variety of stimuli, and identifying the precipitating cause may be useful in guiding treatment and preventing future attacks. A case of asthma exacerbation occurring during multiple defecations is reported. Abnormal parasympathetic tone has been implicated in the pathogenesis of certain types of asthma, and defecation can be associated with increased parasympathetic tone. This patient's pattern of defecation-related asthma exacerbations responded to prophylactic anticholinergic medication.
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4/64. Sudden bronchospasm on intubation: latex anaphylaxis?

    I present a case of a patient with a history of cerebral palsy and asthma, living in a group home, who developed acute onset bronchospasm immediately after intubation. The patient developed hypotension 5 minutes after intubation. The bronchospasm lasted 20 minutes, and the case was complicated further by continued hypotension and a pneumothorax. A diagnosis of latex-mediated anaphylaxis was made in the intensive care unit after immunoglobin E (IgE), serum tryptase, and latex-specific IgE antibody were shown to be markedly elevated. This case report demonstrates that immediate onset of bronchospasm on intubation of an asthmatic patient is not always an asthma attack, and that other causes of bronchospasm should be considered in the differential diagnosis. patients with a history of atopy, including those with a history of asthma, have an increased risk of developing latex sensitivity. It is important to remember that more than one etiology may be responsible for this kind of bronchospasm, and that it may be difficult to differentiate between multiple etiologies of bronchospasm.
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5/64. Severe asthmatic reaction during long-term treatment with disodium cromoglycate powder inhalations.

    inhalation of inert particles may in susceptible subjects with bronchial asthma result in reflex bronchoconstriction mediated through the vagal nerves. A case of severe asthmatic reaction with bronchial spasm in a 60-year-old man with intrinsic asthma after inhalation of disodium cromoglycate powder (Lomudal) during long-term treatment is reported. The mechanism is considered to be reflexogenic. Because of the variability in individual susceptibility during long-term treatment, inhalation therapy should always be given with close attention to asthmatic exacerbations.
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6/64. Protective effect of ketotifen and disodium cromoglycate against bronchoconstriction induced by aspirin, benzoic acid or tartrazine in intolerant asthmatics.

    Oral challenge tests with acetylsalicylic acid, tartrazine or benzoic acid were performed in 7 intolerant asthmatic patients after a 3-day treatment with either orally taken ketotifen (1 mg twice daily) or inhaled disodium cromoglycate (20 mg four times daily) at random. Protection was noted with ketotifen in 5, with DSCG in 3 patients. On the evaluation of the mean percentage of the maximum decline in the forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) only ketotifen afforded significant protection statistically (p less than 0.05). All the intolerant asthmatics studies showed, as an immunological abnormity, a slight, but significant decrease of the C1-inhibitor levels. Moreover, in three out of these the alpha 1-antitrypsin serum values were under the lower normal range.
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7/64. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy in bronchial asthma. A word of caution.

    Three instances of intense laryngospasm and bronchospasm occurred as a result of fiberoptic bronchoscopic examination in three patients with quiescent bronchial asthma. The indications for the procedure were hemoptysis in one patient and lobar collapse in two. It is likely that vagally mediated reflex laryngospasm and bronchoconstriction occur when irritant receptors are mechanically stimulated by the bronchoscope. Therefore, in the asthmatic population with its increased airway reactivity, indications for fiberoptic bronchoscopy should be absolute, and the procedure should be performed under optimal conditions. A rationale for minimizing the risk of this procedure in patients with bronchial asthma is discussed.
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8/64. Bronchospasm induced by propofol in a patient with sick house syndrome.

    IMPLICATIONS: propofol is often used in patients with asthma, but it can induce bronchospasm. We report a patient with sick house syndrome (nonspecific complaints of mucosal irritation, headache, nausea, and chest symptoms) who suffered bronchospasm. This case suggests that propofol is not always a safe anesthetic for patients with asthma, especially drug-induced asthma.
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9/64. Limpet anaphylaxis: cross-reactivity between limpet and house-dust mite dermatophagoides pteronyssinus.

    BACKGROUND: Limpet is a mollusc that is frequently found along the shores of warm seas. Few allergic reactions to limpet have been described, and cross-reactivity with house-dust mites has not been established. methods: We report five patients with anaphylactic reactions due to limpet ingestion. A limpet extract was prepared and skin prick tests (SPT), radioallergosorbent assays (RAST), sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and IgE-immunoblotting were performed. In order to evaluate cross-reactivity, an immunoblotting inhibition assay with dermatophagoides pteronyssinus was also done. RESULTS: All patients were asthmatics sensitized to house-dust mites. In each case, severe bronchospasm was evidenced, and three required mechanical ventilation. Positive SPT with limpet extract was found in the four patients tested. RAST showed specific IgE on each patient's sera. immunoblotting showed several allergenic fractions with a wide molecular weight range (15-250 kDa). D. pteronyssinus inhibited IgE-binding molecules above 50 kDa in the limpet extract, particularly one molecule of 75 kDa. CONCLUSIONS: We describe five patients with IgE-mediated limpet allergy. Severe bronchospasm was the most important symptom. Cross-reactivity with D. pteronyssinus was demonstrated.
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10/64. Sino-bronchial reflex, asthma and sinusitis.

    sinusitis should be suspected in cases of chronic, difficult to control asthma or other pulmonary diseases. Appropriate measures to diagnose and treat sinus disease are listed, and an upright Waters roentgenogram may be all that is required for diagnosis. A true sino-bronchial reflex is proposed in these patients. Nasal receptors and reflexes are effective in the physiology of the nose, and in many cases, the diagnosis and treatment of rhinitis and sinusitis results in the improvement of various chronic pulmonary conditions.
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