Cases reported "Bronchiolitis, Viral"

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1/27. Pulmonary failure after Norwood procedure: indication for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation? A case report.

    Today some authors consider univentricular repair a contraindication for postoperative cardiac extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). The question is whether or not ECMO is indicated as pulmonary support in case of an overwhelming pulmonary infection during the postoperative course after a Norwood procedure. During the prolonged weaning period after a Norwood procedure using a 4 mm aortopulmonary shunt, proven respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis occurred at the time of expected weaning from artificial ventilation. Venovenous ECMO was able to improve oxygenation, but when pulmonary opacification failed to resolve, ECMO was terminated after 12 days. ( info)

2/27. The pharmacologic mechanism by which inhaled epinephrine reduces airway obstruction in respiratory syncytial virus-associated bronchiolitis.

    Inhaled racemic epinephrine relieves airway obstruction in patients with respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. The contribution of alpha- versus beta-adrenoreceptor stimulation toward this clinical effect is unknown. We describe an infant treated with propranolol for supraventricular tachycardia in whom respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis developed. Inhaled racemic epinephrine improved his respiratory symptoms, whereas nebulized albuterol did not. ( info)

3/27. Severe adenovirus bronchiolitis in children.

    Severe adenoviral infections such as the necrotizing adenovirus bronchiolitis occur sporadically in infants. Ascertaining the etiologic role of adenovirus in cases of lung disease can pose a diagnostic problem. We present two cases of severe bronchiolitis in previously healthy children in which adenovirus could be shown to be the causing agent. Both children received immunosuppressive therapy with steroids and Cyclosporin for 3 mo and a course of intravenous ribavirin for 10 d. The results were conflicting: despite therapy Patient 1 died due to respiratory failure, Patient 2 improved notably. Conclusions: Adenovirus can cause severe bronchiolitis in previously healthy children. diagnosis may be difficult to achieve. The role of antiviral therapy in the treatment of adenoviral infections remains to be cleared. ( info)

4/27. Use of montelukast in the treatment of early childhood wheezing from clinical experience with three cases.

    leukotrienes were found to be raised in respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. Montelukast is a cysteinyl leukotrienes antagonist. We report our experience with the use of montelukast in three young children from 5-months to 20-months old. The first case was a 5-month-old boy with previous good health. He had prolonged respiratory distress secondary to adenovirus type 3 infection. The second case was a 20-month-old boy with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. He had respiratory syncytial virus and an adenovirus type 3 infection leading to prolonged wheeze. The third case was a 20-month-old girl with chronic lung disorder after an episode of severe E. coli pneumonia at 1 month old. She developed acute virus-negative severe wheeze after a few days of running nose and low-grade fever. All three cases responded poorly to inhaled steroids and bronchodilators. Addition of montelukast was associated with marked clinical improvement within 1 week. The three cases were very heterogeneous and differed from usual simple virus-induced acute bronchiolitis. The use of multiple drugs including montelukast did not enable any definite conclusions; however, the addition of montelukast was closely related to clinical improvement. Further studies in the use of montelukast in severe virus-induced bronchiolitis are warranted. ( info)

5/27. Encephalopathy associated with respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis.

    Respiratory syncytial virus is an extremely common cause of childhood respiratory infections resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Although apnea is a well-known complication in young infants with respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis, the encephalopathy associated with this infection is not well recognized. Our study reveals an incidence of encephalopathy of 1.8% in a total of 487 patients with respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis studied over a period of almost 4 years. seizures were the presenting complication. Based on our study of a cohort of children with respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis, we believe that neurologic complications, although relatively uncommon, represent a significant component of this common childhood illness. Furthermore, respiratory syncytial virus has been shown to release several mediators that could directly or indirectly be neurotoxic and induce an encephalopathy associated with the respiratory illness. ( info)

6/27. Avoiding intubation in the injured subglottis: the role of heliox therapy.

    intubation in the child presenting with severe viral tracheobronchitis or prior subglottic injury can be detrimental to the child and the subglottis. intubation may lead to further mucosal ischemia, scar, subglottic stenosis, or failed extubation requiring a tracheotomy. Heliox is a combination of helium and oxygen that produces less-dense gas exchange. Its use leads to a decrease in turbulent airflow, which may obviate the need for intubation. Here we report our experience using heliox as initial therapy in 14 consecutive children presenting with severe airway distress and the need for intubation. (Five had viral tracheobronchitis, 5 had inflammatory exacerbation of subglottic stenosis, and 4 had acute iatrogenic subglottic injury.) In 10 of the 14 children, intubation, which can lead to mucosal injury and scarring, was avoided by the use of heliox therapy. Of the 4 children in whom heliox therapy failed, 3 had a prior history of subglottic stenosis. Heliox is a relatively safe and reliable alternative to intubation of children with severe subglottic edema or injury. Heliox should be considered before intubation for selected children with subglottic inflammation and severe airway distress. ( info)

7/27. DNase treatment for atelectasis in infants with severe respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis.

    respiratory insufficiency due to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis is partly due to the abundance of thickened mucus and the inability to clear it from the airways. mucus in RSV bronchiolitis contains necrotic inflammatory and epithelial cells. The viscoelastic properties of purulent airway secretions are largely due to the presence of highly polymerized deoxyribonucleic acid (dna). Recombinant human deoxyribonuclease (rhDNase) is known to liquefy such mucus in patients with cystic fibrosis, whereas case reports described a beneficial effect in other respiratory disorders. The authors hypothesized that rhDNase would diminish atelectasis and mucus plugging in infants with severe RSV bronchiolitis. Two infants with RSV bronchiolitis with massive unilateral atelectasis in whom mechanical ventilation was imminent due to exhaustion, and three mechanically ventilated infants (two neonates, one with bronchopulmonary dysplasia) with RSV bronchiolitis with pneumonia received treatment with 2.5 mg nebulized rhDNase twice daily. Following administration of nebulized recombinant human deoxyribonuclease, clinical and radiological parameters improved quickly. Mechanical ventilation could be avoided in two infants while in three infants on artificial ventilation, clinical recovery started following the first dose of the drug. A therapeutic trial of recombinant human deoxyribonuclease may be an option in the treatment for atelectasis in severe or complicated respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in infancy. ( info)

8/27. incidence of hyponatraemia and hyponatraemic seizures in severe respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis.

    AIM: To document the incidence and early evolution of hyponatraemia (serum sodium < 136 mmol l(-1)) associated with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis in infants requiring intensive care. methods: In a retrospective review over two winter seasons, 130 infants were admitted with confirmed RSV infection, of whom 39 were excluded because of either pre-existing risk factors for hyponatraemia: diuretic therapy (n = 14), cardiac disease (n = 10), renal disease (n = 2) or lack of admission sodium data (n = 13). RESULTS: The incidence of admission hyponatraemia in the remaining infants (median age 6 wk) was 33% (30/91), with 11% (10/91) exhibiting a serum sodium less than 130 mmol l(-1) . Hyponatraemic and normonatraemic infants were of a similar age (median 6 vs 7 wk, p = 0.82). With fluid restriction and diuretic therapy, the incidence of hyponatraemia at 48 h had decreased to 3.3%, odds ratio 0.07 (95% confidence interval 0.02-0.24, p < 0.001). Four infants (4%) suffered hyponatraemic seizures at admission (sodium 114-123 mmol l(-1)); three had received hypotonic intravenous fluids at 100-150 ml kg(-1) d(-1) before referral to intensive care. All four were managed successfully with hypertonic (3%) saline, followed by fluid restriction, resulting in immediate termination of seizure activity and normalization of serum sodium values over 48 h. CONCLUSION: Hyponatraemia is common among infants with RSV bronchiolitis presenting to intensive care. Neurological complications may occur and fluid therapy in vulnerable infants should be tailored to reduce this risk. ( info)

9/27. Repair of incarcerated inguinal hernia in an infant with acute viral bronchiolitis.

    PURPOSE: To describe the anesthetic concerns and management options in an infant with acute viral bronchiolitis who required emergency surgery. CLINICAL FEATURES: A 12-week-old infant presented to the emergency department with an incarcerated right inguinal hernia. The history was complicated by concurrent acute bronchiolitis. As the hernia was irreducible, emergency surgery was required. General endotracheal anesthesia, following a rapid sequence induction, was supplemented with a caudal epidural block. Inhaled salbutamol and suctioning for thick tracheal secretions were required and were found to be clinically useful. The baby made a good postoperative recovery. CONCLUSIONS: A variety of techniques may be used to anesthetize the infant with concurrent acute bronchiolitis. In this case a good outcome was achieved with combined general and regional anesthesia, together with the use of inhaled salbutamol. ( info)

10/27. Fatal coronary artery anomaly presenting as bronchiolitis.

    During winter outbreaks of respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis from 2002 to 2004, three infants presented with a presumptive diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infection and wheezing. The clinical condition in two cases was rapidly progressive and precipitated into intractable shock; clinical and instrumental examinations revealed a cardiac origin of their illness. A subacute presentation permitted a cardiological assessment and a proper treatment in the third infant. An abnormal origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary trunk was demonstrated in all cases. The concurrent acute airway infection had a catastrophic effect on the underlying cardiovascular anomaly leading to refractory cardiogenic shock and death. CONCLUSION: Admission chest x-ray film and arterial gas analysis can raise the suspicion of cardiac involvement when treating a severe wheezing episode in young infants. Paediatric cardiological evaluation with two-dimensional echocardiography may eventually reveal this rare condition, whereas cardiac catheterisation with aortography remains the standard means of diagnosis. ( info)
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