Cases reported "Bronchiolitis"

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1/7. Severe bronchiolitis in acute mycoplasma pneumoniae infection.

    We report on a 17-year-old patient with severe bronchiolitis due to mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. Despite an early 10-day course of clarithromycin, she developed progressive dyspnea, cough, fever, and severe obstructive ventilatory impairment. Sixteen days after onset of the disease a severe hemolytic anemia developed with only cold agglutinins positive at serologic screening. Thoracoscopic lung biopsy revealed diffuse bronchiolitis with suppurative intrabronchiolar inflammation, lymphohistiocytic "cuffing" of the bronchioli, and foam cell aggregates within neighboring alveoli. The infiltrate consisted mainly of CD3 , CD8 lymphocytes and CD68 macrophages. The diagnosis of mycoplasma pneumoniae bronchiolitis was based on repeated complement fixation tests, which turned strongly positive only at day 74 after onset of the disease. Pulmonary function improved slowly under long-term prednisone treatment.
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2/7. Unusual late pulmonary complication in a child after umbilical cord blood transplantation: high-resolution CT-pathologic correlation.

    We encountered a late pulmonary complication after umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) that has not been previously reported. High-resolution CT (HRCT) findings of this disease were compared with the pathology. HRCT obtained on inspiration showed dilated thick-walled bronchioli, and innumerable centrilobular linear and branching structures in the bilateral middle and lower lobes. Neither mosaic perfusion nor air-trapping was seen in HRCT on inspiration and expiration. These HRCT findings were atypical compared with those of former bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) after bone marrow transplant (BMT). Pathologic specimens obtained by open lung biopsy showed thickening of the wall from the distal bronchioli to the alveolar ducts due to submucosal and intraepithelial infiltration of lymphocytes, histiocytes and foamy macrophages, which was not accompanied by organizing changes. These changes resemble lymphocytic bronchiolitis in lung transplant recipients, which was well correlated with HRCT findings. We think that our case was a new late pulmonary complication after UCBT.
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3/7. Bronchiolo-alveolitis with pulmonary basal lamina injury in a rheumatoid patient during gold treatment.

    A 47-year-old housewife presented with nonproductive cough, progressive breathlessness and intermittent fever during gold treatment, originally prescribed for seropositive polyarthritis, which later fulfilled the criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). An open lung biopsy showed abundant interstitial edema with mononuclear inflammatory cells and some eosinophils, and slight bronchiolitis. The picture was nonspecific but suggestive of hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Electron microscopy revealed splitting and local disappearance of the basal laminae of the alveolar capillaries, venules and alveolar epithelium. This injury was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining for type IV collagen and laminin, the major components of basal laminae. In most macrophages there was lysosomal electron dense granular material, i.e. aurosomes, which gave the spectrum of gold in electron microprobe analysis. After the gold treatment was stopped the pulmonary symptoms gradually decreased during several months and no permanent lung disease remained. Whereas the pulmonary manifestation could have been due to her underlying disease we discuss in this study the possibility of its being gold induced.
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4/7. Diffuse panbronchiolitis in the united states.

    Diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB), an important cause of progressive obstructive lung disease in the far east, represents a distinctive sinobronchial syndrome with typical radiologic and histologic features. We have identified DPB in five citizens of the united states, three with histologic confirmation, who have never traveled to the far east. There were four men and one woman, whose ages ranged from 46 to 75 yr at the time of diagnosis. All had a prior history of chronic sinusitis and presented with cough, dyspnea, and sputum production. Three were never smokers and two were current smokers. Pulmonary function testing revealed severe airflow limitation (the FEV1 ranging from 22% to 56% of predicted), and overdistention. All patients had high-resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) scans indicating centrilobular nodules with adjoining thickened and dilated bronchioles. In the three patients in whom open lung biopsy was performed, there was bronchiolocentric infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and foamy macrophages. Three patients remain alive and are being treated with chronic macrolide therapy. The clinical, radiographic, and histologic features of these patients closely resemble those described in Japanese patients. DPB must be considered in the differential diagnosis of sinopulmonary syndromes, bronchiolitis, and cryptic cases of obstructive lung disease among united states citizens, since therapy now offers an improved prognosis.
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5/7. Respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease: a case report with bronchoalveolar lavage findings.

    We report a case of respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease in a young asymptomatic heavy cigarette smoker. diagnosis was achieved by examination of specimens obtained from open lung biopsy, but retrospective evaluation of bronchoalveolar lavage findings offer some circumstantial suggestions. We provide evidence for the nature of inclusions contained in alveolar macrophages. Problems related to the classification of respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease are also discussed.
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6/7. Diffuse panbronchiolitis: histologic diagnosis in unsuspected cases involving North American residents of Asian descent.

    OBJECTIVE: To study and report two cases of diffuse panbronchiolitis in patients of Asian ancestry residing in the united states and to review the literature pertaining to this disease. DESIGN: Diffuse panbronchiolitis is a progressive interstitial pneumonitis occurring primarily in japan. Rare cases are now being identified in europe and north america. patients often have a history of sinusitis, present with dyspnea on exertion, and show a restrictive pattern on pulmonary function tests. The clinical, radiologic, and pathologic features of two cases of the disease received for consultation at the Armed Forces Institute of pathology, washington, DC, are reported with a review of the literature. RESULTS: Chest radiographs revealed bilateral small nodular opacities with ill-defined borders. High-resolution computed tomography demonstrated the abnormalities to have a centrilobular distribution. Histologically, there was transmural chronic inflammation centered on the terminal bronchioles and an interstitial infiltrate of foamy macrophages. CONCLUSION: Diffuse panbronchiolitis may be mistaken for other more common small airway diseases and may be underrecognized in Western nations. The immigration of Asians and sporadic case reports involving non-Asians make recognition of this disease entity important, as the implications for therapy are different than that of other small airway diseases.
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7/7. Respiratory bronchiolitis: radiographic and CT findings in a pathologically proven case.

    A small number of cases of cigarette-smoking-associated respiratory bronchiolitis (RB) with positive findings on the chest radiograph have been reported in the literature. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings are available in even fewer cases. We describe the case of an asymptomatic female smoker presenting with a reticulomicronodular infiltrate on a routine chest radiograph. High-resolution CT was characterized by ground-glass opacities and centrilobular micronodules with an upper lobe predominance. Surgical biopsy revealed peribronchiolar lesions, with accumulation of brown pigmented macrophages in the lumen of alveolar and bronchiolar lumen, consistent with the pathologic diagnosis of RB.
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