Cases reported "Bronchitis"

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1/29. Occupational neutrophilic asthma.

    Occupational asthma is typically associated with an eosinophilic bronchitis. The case of a 41-year-old woman who developed symptoms of asthma after occupational exposure to metal working fluids is reported. The diagnosis of asthma was confirmed by an forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) of 1.7 (59% predicted), with 11% reversibility after inhaled bronchodilator and a provocation concentration of methacholine to cause a fall in FEV1 of 20% (PC20) of 0.4 mg/mL. Induced sputum examination showed a marked neutrophilia. Over the next six months, serial sputum analyses confirmed the presence of a marked sterile neutrophilic bronchitis during periods of occupational exposure to metal working fluids, which resolved when the patient was away from work and recurred when she returned to work. The sputum findings were mirrored by corresponding changes in spirometry and PC20 methacholine. The findings indicate the occurrence of occupational asthma associated with an intense, sterile neutrophilic bronchitis after exposure to metal working fluids.
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keywords = asthma
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2/29. bronchiectasis: the 'other' obstructive lung disease.

    bronchiectasis belongs to the family of chronic obstructive lung diseases, even though it is much less common than asthma, chronic bronchitis, or emphysema. Clinical features of these entities overlap significantly. The triad of chronic cough, sputum production, and hemoptysis always should bring bronchiectasis to mind as a possible cause. Chronic airway inflammation leads to bronchial dilation and destruction, resulting in recurrent sputum overproduction and pneumonitis. Once the diagnosis is confirmed, any potential predisposing conditions should be aggressively sought. The relapsing nature of bronchiectasis can be controlled with antibiotics, chest physiotherapy, inhaled bronchodilators, proper hydration, and good nutrition. In rare circumstances, surgical resection or bilateral lung transplantation may be the only option available for improving quality of life. prognosis is generally good but varies with the underlying syndrome.
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ranking = 0.125
keywords = asthma
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3/29. Development of irreversible airflow obstruction in a patient with eosinophilic bronchitis without asthma.

    Eosinophilic bronchitis is a recently described condition presenting with chronic cough and sputum eosinophilia without the abnormalities of airway function seen in asthma. The patient, a 48-yr-old male who had never smoked, presented with an isolated chronic cough. He had normal spirometric values, peak flow variability and airway responsiveness, but an induced sputum eosinophil count of 33% (normal <1%). Although his cough improved with inhaled corticosteroids the sputum eosinophilia persisted. Over 2 yrs he developed airflow obstruction, which did not improve following nebulized bronchodilators and a 2-week course of prednisolone 30 mg once daily sufficient to return the sputum eosinophilia to normal (0.5%). It is suggested that the progressive irreversible airflow obstruction was due to persistent structural change to the airway secondary to eosinophilic airway inflammation, and it is further speculated that eosinophilic bronchitis may be a prelude to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in some patients.
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ranking = 0.625
keywords = asthma
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4/29. Tracheal lipoma: a rare intrathoracic neoplasm.

    Primary tracheal lipomas are extremely rare neoplasms. The typical patient is a middle-aged man with complaints of cough and shortness of breath. Often, the diagnosis is delayed, and patients are treated for asthma or bronchitis. The diagnosis of a tracheal lipoma is best approached by computed tomography (CT) and bronchofibroscopy. Tracheobronchial lipomas may be successfully excised endoscopically or by laser therapy. Open surgical resection is required when the lipoma extends extraluminally.
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ranking = 0.125
keywords = asthma
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5/29. Plastic bronchitis in children: a case series and review of the medical literature.

    Plastic bronchitis is characterized by marked obstruction of the large airways by bronchial casts. We reviewed our experience and the literature to determine whether mortality rates are determined by underlying disease or cast type. We present 3 children with obstructive bronchial casts. One 3-year-old patient with Noonan's syndrome developed respiratory failure following surgery for tetralogy of fallot requiring support with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) the first such case. There were 42 cases in the literature of children with plastic bronchitis. Casts may be divided into two types. Type I casts are inflammatory, consisting mainly of fibrin with cellular infiltrates, and occur in inflammatory diseases of the lung. Type II, or acellular casts, consist mainly of mucin with a few cells, and usually occur following surgery for congenital cardiac defects. patients categorized by underlying disease included 31% with asthma or allergic disease, 40% with underlying cardiac defects, and 29% with other diseases. mortality was 16%, but increased to 29% in patients with cardiac defects. Deaths occurred as long as 1 year after surgical repair for underlying defects. There were no deaths in patients with asthma. Life-threatening events were statistically higher in patients with cardiac defects (41%) than in those with asthma (0%, P = 0.02). Higher mortality in patients with type II casts compared to type I casts did not reach statistical significance (28% vs. 6%; P = 0.06). In conclusion, patients presenting with plastic bronchitis are at high risk for serious complications, especially with underlying cardiac disease.
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ranking = 0.375
keywords = asthma
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6/29. Plastic bronchitis mimicking foreign body aspiration that needs a specific diagnostic procedure.

    OBJECTIVE: To report two children admitted to our emergency department with respiratory failure, one for status asthmaticus with pneumomediastinum and requiring mechanical ventilation and the other for high suspicion of foreign body aspiration. INTERVENTIONS: bronchoscopy revealed obstructive plugs and permitted their extraction and their identification as bronchial casts after the immersion in normal saline. Allergy was suspected in the first one, and Hemophilus influenzae infection was present in the second. The outcome was favorable. CONCLUSIONS: Plastic bronchitis is an infrequent cause of acute life-threatening respiratory failure that can mimic foreign body aspiration or status asthmaticus. Bronchoscopic extraction must be performed urgently in the case of severe obstruction. This entity is probably underestimated as the casts with their specific ramifications are difficult to recognize. We recommend the immersion in normal saline of all plugs discovered in children with predisposing diseases mainly represented by infections, allergy, acute chest syndrome, and congenital cardiopathies.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = asthma
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7/29. Asthmatic bronchitis for 2 years. A case report.

    Longstanding asthmatic bronchitis, without evidence of underlying disease, occurring in middle-aged patients, is usually attributed to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and is treated appropriately. We report a case of 2-year asthmatic bronchitis with recurrent attacks of wheezing, in a 60-year-old patient. He had three repeated hospitalizations, in different institutions, where he was treated for exacerbations of chronic bronchitis complicated by lower respiratory tract infections. During his final hospitalization, a tracheal hamartoma was found and removed, releasing him from his symptoms.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = asthma
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8/29. Idiopathic granulomatous bronchitis. An unusual form of known granulomatous lung diseases or an unknown disease?

    We describe two patients demonstrating a granulomatous inflammation of bronchial mucosa characterized clinically by a persistent dry cough, lack of manifestations of bronchial asthma, normal level of serum IgE and serum ACE, inflamed bronchial mucosal appearance consisting of edema, erythema, bleeding and narrowing and recovering without specific treatment. Histopathological findings of the bronchial inflammation of our patients were characterized by noncaseating granuloma formation consisting of epithelioid cells and multinucleated giant cells with infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells and eosinophils. The bronchial granulomatous inflammation of our patients was thought to differ from that of diseases which have been known, to our knowledge, as diseases demonstrating a granulomatous inflammation of bronchial mucosa. Although the pathogenesis of the disease could not be clarified by a careful search of special staining and culturing for the infective agent, it was most suggestive of non-specific inflammation with a granulomatous response to some sort of inhaled agents.
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ranking = 0.125
keywords = asthma
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9/29. Plastic bronchitis: an unusual cause of respiratory distress in children.

    This case illustrates an unusual cause of respiratory distress in the pediatric population. A high degree of suspicion is necessary to make the diagnosis of plastic bronchitis. Wheezing and cough will lead to the diagnosis of reactive airway disease and/or foreign body aspiration. Chest radiographs may yield additional information, but the diagnosis is made by bronchoscopy and removal of the casts. Any child with severe respiratory distress refractory to aggressive conventional medical therapy and with a history or radiograph suggestive of plastic bronchitis should be considered a candidate for bronchoscopy. As clinicians, we must always remember the dictum, "All that wheezes is not asthma."
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ranking = 0.125
keywords = asthma
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10/29. Acute plastic bronchitis.

    Plastic bronchitis is a rare disorder characterized by the formation of bronchial cast. The etiology is obscure, though usually associated with conditions like asthma, aspergillosis, pneumonia, cystic fibrosis and cardiac problems.
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ranking = 0.125
keywords = asthma
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