Cases reported "bronchitis"

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1/278. ceftizoxime-induced hemolysis due to immune complexes: case report and determination of the epitope responsible for immune complex-mediated hemolysis.

    BACKGROUND: Several occurrences of immune complex-mediated, cephalosporin-induced intravascular hemolysis have been reported. This report describes the first case of hemolytic anemia caused by an immune-complex mechanism associated with ceftizoxime and delineates the epitope responsible for hemolysis. CASE REPORT: The patient's serum was tested for antibody that reacted with five penicillins and 30 cephems (all types of cephalosporins) by using protocols to detect drug-adsorption and immune-complex mechanisms. The patient's antibody that formed immune complexes with ceftizoxime reacted with 10 of 30 cephems. These 10 drugs were classified as oxime-type cephalosporins, which have a common structural formula consisting of [(Z)-2-(2-amino-4-thiazolyl)-2-methoxyiminoacetoamido] at the C7 position on 7-aminocephalosporinic acid with or without substitution at the C3 position. CONCLUSION: The patient's antibody recognized a common structure in 10 oxime-type cephalosporins, and immune complexes formed by the antibody specifically or nonspecifically bound to red cell membranes. Therefore, when intermittent antibiotic therapy is required, as in this case, care should be taken in antibiotic selection to avoid drug-induced hemolytic anemia. In addition, when this type of hemolysis is observed, tests for antibody that reacts by adsorption and immune-complex mechanisms should be performed against penicillins and cephems to select antibiotics not showing a cross-reaction. ( info)

2/278. Occupational neutrophilic asthma.

    Occupational asthma is typically associated with an eosinophilic bronchitis. The case of a 41-year-old woman who developed symptoms of asthma after occupational exposure to metal working fluids is reported. The diagnosis of asthma was confirmed by an forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) of 1.7 (59% predicted), with 11% reversibility after inhaled bronchodilator and a provocation concentration of methacholine to cause a fall in FEV1 of 20% (PC20) of 0.4 mg/mL. Induced sputum examination showed a marked neutrophilia. Over the next six months, serial sputum analyses confirmed the presence of a marked sterile neutrophilic bronchitis during periods of occupational exposure to metal working fluids, which resolved when the patient was away from work and recurred when she returned to work. The sputum findings were mirrored by corresponding changes in spirometry and PC20 methacholine. The findings indicate the occurrence of occupational asthma associated with an intense, sterile neutrophilic bronchitis after exposure to metal working fluids. ( info)

3/278. Constrictive bronchiolitis and ulcerative colitis.

    Pulmonary complications occur in an estimated 0.21% of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. The most common presentation of pulmonary manifestations is large airway disease, such as tracheobronchitis, chronic bronchitis or bronchiectasis. Small airway disease, such as constrictive bronchiolitis or bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia, is less frequently reported, and is described as occurring in isolation from large airway disease. A case of a postcolectomy ulcerative colitis in a patient who has both large airway involvement, tracheobronchitis and bronchiectasis, and constrictive bronchiolitis is presented. ( info)

4/278. Extensive cutaneous necrosis associated with anticardiolipin antibodies.

    Extensive cutaneous necrosis (ECN) associated with antiphospholipid antibodies is a rare presentation. We describe 2 patients with ECN and high titers of anticardiolipin antibodies. The mechanism by which these antibodies act has not been established and there is still controversy regarding treatment of these patients without established guidelines. In the few documented cases the use of pulse steroid therapy, anticoagulants, fibrinolytic agents, plasmapheresis, or a combination of them has shown some benefit. Early recognition and treatment of the antiphospholipid syndrome may limit the extent of thrombotic complications that can result in tissue necrosis. ( info)

5/278. mucormycosis of the central airways: CT findings in three patients.

    Computed tomographic (CT) findings are described in three diabetic patients with central airways mucormycosis. The CT findings of the tracheobronchial mucormycosis include enhancing areas of mural thickening (n = 3), luminal narrowing (n = 3), intramural air (n = 3), low-attenuation nonenhancing bronchial wall thickening (n = 2), and bronchonodal fistula formation (n = 1). These CT features in a diabetic patient should raise a high index of suspicion for tracheobronchial mucormycosis, particularly when typical radiographic features of pulmonary tuberculosis are absent. ( info)

6/278. radiation-induced bronchial stenosis: a new cause of platypnea-orthodeoxia.

    Platypnea-orthodeoxia is encountered in a variety of cardiac, pulmonary, and hepatic disorders. We report its occurrence in a 59-year-old man who had had combined external-beam and high dose-rate iridium brachytherapy for a stage I non-small-cell carcinoma of the right upper lobe 2 years earlier. The post-radiation course was complicated by a severe radiation bronchitis; the onset of platypnea-orthodeoxia signalled the development of severe bronchial stenosis that was transiently relieved, initially by dilatation, and later by stent placement, though the patient ultimately died of a pulmonary hemorrhage. The dosage of brachytherapy given, the combined external-beam therapy, and the long survival after completion of radiation therapy were likely factors in the development of bronchial stenosis. We discuss the tomographic and bronchoscopic features of radiation-induced bronchial stenosis. ( info)

7/278. bronchiectasis: the 'other' obstructive lung disease.

    bronchiectasis belongs to the family of chronic obstructive lung diseases, even though it is much less common than asthma, chronic bronchitis, or emphysema. Clinical features of these entities overlap significantly. The triad of chronic cough, sputum production, and hemoptysis always should bring bronchiectasis to mind as a possible cause. Chronic airway inflammation leads to bronchial dilation and destruction, resulting in recurrent sputum overproduction and pneumonitis. Once the diagnosis is confirmed, any potential predisposing conditions should be aggressively sought. The relapsing nature of bronchiectasis can be controlled with antibiotics, chest physiotherapy, inhaled bronchodilators, proper hydration, and good nutrition. In rare circumstances, surgical resection or bilateral lung transplantation may be the only option available for improving quality of life. prognosis is generally good but varies with the underlying syndrome. ( info)

8/278. A possible mechanism of primary ciliary dyskinesia: a case of a segmental defect in ciliary microtubules.

    We report here a 13-year-old woman with cough, sputum and fever. The patient had both chronic sinusitis and bronchitis. Chest X-ray and computed tomographic scan of the chest revealed mucous bronchial filling and bronchiectasia in bronchi of bilateral lower lobes, right middle lobe and left upper lobe. Aerosol inhalation scintigraphy with 99mTechnetium demonstrated delays of the discharged tracer. On the basis of these findings, primary ciliary dyskinesia was suggested. This was confirmed by the findings from nasal biopsy with transmission electron microscopy where all of the microtubules were segmentally defected near the basal body in the cilia. On the basis of these findings, we diagnosed the patient with primary ciliary dyskinesia which may be due, at least in part, to segmental defect of ciliary microtubules. ( info)

9/278. Herpetic tracheitis and brachial plexus neuropathy in a child with burns.

    Herpetic tracheobronchitis is a well-recognized clinical entity that most commonly occurs in immunocompromised patients, including patients with burns. Although the diagnosis of herpetic tracheobronchitis is usually not made until postmortem examination, the presence of the condition can be established when histologic specimens of a patient with upper airway obstruction are studied. In this article, a case is described in which a child developed herpetic tracheitis after undergoing elective intubation after the grafting of burns of the face, neck, and upper extremity. The tracheitis resulted in severe upper airway obstruction that required tracheal dilatation and sequential bronchoscopic excisions of granulation tissue. The patient also developed a brachial plexus neuropathy that was most likely related to herpetic infection. ( info)

10/278. Successful treatment of post-influenza pseudomembranous necrotising bronchial aspergillosis with liposomal amphotericin, inhaled amphotericin b, gamma interferon and GM-CSF.

    A case of aspergillus tracheobronchitis following influenza A infection in an immunocompetent 35 year old woman is described that required prolonged mechanical ventilation for airways obstruction. Treatment included liposomal amphotericin, inhaled amphotericin, gamma interferon and GM-CSF. Liposomal amphotericin therapy was associated with reversible hepatosplenomegaly. Inhaled corticosteroids with continued antifungal therapy were used for the management of severe recurrent airway obstruction. After a prolonged course of treatment she survived with fixed airways obstruction unresponsive to corticosteroids. ( info)
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