Cases reported "Brown-Sequard Syndrome"

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1/73. Use of breath-activated Patient Controlled analgesia for acute pain management in a patient with quadriplegia.

    We report the use of breath-activated Patient Controlled analgesia (PCA) for the provision of analgesia in a quadriplegic patient with traumatic neck injury. This provided good pain relief, decreased opioid complications, improved perceptions of self-control, smoothed recovery and enhanced patient, family as well as staff satisfaction. The setup and principles of its use in a patient with high anxiety and unable to use conventionally activated PCA are illustrated. ( info)

2/73. Idiopathic spinal cord herniation: value of MR phase-contrast imaging.

    We report two patients with an idiopathic transdural spinal cord herniation at the thoracic level. Phase-contrast MR imaging was helpful in showing an absence of CSF flow ventral to the herniated cord and a normal CSF flow pattern dorsal to the cord, which excluded a compressive posterior arachnoid cyst. ( info)

3/73. brown-sequard syndrome after management of vertebral hemangioma with intralesional alcohol. A case report.

    STUDY DESIGN: This report describes brown-sequard syndrome after intralesional injection of absolute alcohol into vertebral hemangioma. OBJECTIVE: To discuss whether the described technique is safe in the management of vertebral hemangiomas. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The management of vertebral hemangiomas remains controversial. There have been reports of successful management using intralesional absolute alcohol. methods: The clinical and radiologic features of the reported complication are detailed. RESULTS: Intralesional injection of absolute alcohol caused brown-sequard syndrome. CONCLUSION: This case shows that intralesional alcohol injection cannot be considered a safe technique for management of vertebral hemangiomas with spinal cord compression. ( info)

4/73. Ventral transdural herniation of the thoracic spinal cord: surgical treatment in four cases and review of literature.

    BACKGROUND: A specific cause of progressive brown-sequard syndrome has been identified: a ventral herniation of the thoracic spinal cord through the dural sleeve on one side. METHOD: Four female patients who were affected by a progressive Brown Sequard syndrome related to a transdural spinal cord herniation have been investigated and were submitted to surgery and postoperative evaluation. FINDINGS: The MRI scan showed atrophy and forward displacement of the spinal cord on one side and adhesion of the spinal cord to the dura mater. CT myelography demonstrated the disappearance of the premedullar rim at the level of the herniation and the shadow of the extradural herniation. Surgical treatment consisted in the excision of the arachnoid cyst when there was one, section of the dentate ligament, release of the adhesions, detachment of the spinal cord from the hernial orifice, and lastly suture of the dural tear or placement by a patch. Follow-up examination showed motor improvement with persistent sensory deficit in two cases and stabilisation in two cases. INTERPRETATION: The cause of the dural tear, either traumatic or congenital could not be confirmed in the four cases. Symptoms probably occur when herniation fills the orifice and strangulation happens which explains the late appearance and progressive evolution of this myelopathy. Mobilisation of the herniated spinal cord back into the intradural space can be achieved by surgery and may stop the evolution of the symptoms and signs. ( info)

5/73. An unusual cause of spinal cord injury: case report and discussion.

    Traumatic spinal cord injury is a devastating condition that alters every aspect of the victim's life. Motor vehicle accidents cause about half of the cases, whereas others are the result of falls, recreational and sporting accidents, or acts of violence. We report a case of a C3 spinal fracture with a resultant Brown Sequard syndrome, which occurred in a unique manner and could have easily been prevented. There is a need for the medical community to play a more active role in educating the public to prevent accidents that lead to these catastrophic injuries. ( info)

6/73. Spinal cord herniation into an extensive extradural meningeal cyst: postoperative analysis of intracystic flow by phase-contrast cine MRI.

    We report a patient with idiopathic spinal cord herniation who underwent postoperative myelography and phase-contrast cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to clarify the condition of the ventral cystic lesion into which the spinal cord had been herniated. This 58-year-old man showed symptoms and signs compatible with brown-sequard syndrome. A myelogram and MRI showed that the spinal cord was incarcerated in a small space, and this finding led to the diagnosis of spinal cord herniation. In the operation, the herniated spinal cord was returned to the initial intradural space, and the dural defect was enlarged to prevent recurrence of the herniation. After the operation, leg muscle strength improved and bladder and bowel dysfunction resolved, but analgesia was unchanged. Postoperative myelography revealed a very large extradural cystic lesion, which extended from C2 to L1 vertebral level. A cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow study of the intradural space disclosed a near-normal pattern, but the intracystic CSF dynamics were abnormal. In the intracystic space at just the upper level of the lesion, cranial flow (reverse directional flow in comparison with the intradural flow) was seen in the systolic cycle after momentary fast caudal flow, and these CSF dynamics may have been related to the spinal cord herniation. ( info)

7/73. Spontaneous spinal cord herniation: case report and review of the literature.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Spontaneous herniation of the spinal cord substance through a previously uninjured and/or untouched dura is a very exceptional occurrence. Spontaneous spinal cord herniation, which was first reported 25 years ago, is a cause of myelopathy that is treatable but difficult to diagnose. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 49-year-old female patient who presented with a 3-year history of a burning sensation and hyperesthesia in her right leg and a 3-month history of left leg stiffness was diagnosed as exhibiting signs of Brown-Sequard syndrome. magnetic resonance imaging of the thoracic spinal canal demonstrated S-shaped anterior kinking and transdural herniation of the spinal cord at the T3-T4 levels. INTERVENTION: The patient underwent surgery via a three-level laminectomy. The herniated part of the spinal cord was microsurgically reduced, and the dural defect was repaired with Gore-Tex membrane (WL Gore & Associates, Flagstaff, AZ). The outcome of surgery was excellent. CONCLUSION: review of the world literature revealed 29 reported cases, with 27 of these cases being published since 1990. The clinical features, radiological diagnosis, and treatment options for this unique entity are summarized, with a synopsis of numerous misconceptions that appeared in the literature. With more familiarity with and increased awareness of this entity, more cases will be diagnosed. ( info)

8/73. Progressive spontaneous herniation of the thoracic spinal cord: case report.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: We report one case of spontaneous thoracic spinal cord herniation. To our knowledge, this is the first case involving radiological documentation of the development of herniation. Clinical features and surgical techniques are also presented. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: We describe the case of a 51-year-old female patient who experienced progressive brown-sequard syndrome for 2 years. Three magnetic resonance imaging examinations were performed; they revealed the progressive development of anterolateral spinal cord herniation at the level of T6 during those 2 years. INTERVENTION: After laminectomy at T6, the herniated myelon was microsurgically removed and the neurological symptoms improved. CONCLUSION: We present the possible causes, the proposed pathophysiological mechanisms, and the clinical and radiological development of this rare entity, with a review of the literature published to date. We propose that a preexisting weakness of the ventral dural fibers, combined with abnormal adhesion of the spinal cord to the anterior dural sleeve, leads to progressive herniation throughout life. Microsurgical treatment may halt the exacerbation of the neurological symptoms. ( info)

9/73. Intradural cervical disc herniation. Case report and review of the literature.

    The authors describe a rare case of an intradural cervical disc herniation in a 40-year-old man presenting with Brown-Sequard's syndrome. magnetic resonance imaging revealed the pathological entity at the C5-6 disc space, which showed suspicious signs of intradural extension of the disc herniation. After the patient underwent microsurgical removal of the herniated disc via an anterior approach, he experienced a complete remission of symptoms. The existing pertinent literature is reviewed, and diagnostic and therapeutic implications are discussed. ( info)

10/73. Intradural cervical disc herniation and Brown-Sequard's syndrome. Report of three cases and review of the literature.

    Although cervical disc herniation commonly requires surgical intervention, the intradural sequestration of a herniated cervical disc fragment is rare. In searching the world literature on this topic, the authors found six case reports. They report three new cases of intradural cervical disc herniation in which the patients presented with Brown-Sequard's syndrome and they review the literature. Although Brown-Sequard's syndrome is a rare clinical finding in extradural disc herniation, six of the nine patients with intradural cervical disc herniation (our cases and those from the literature) presented with symptoms of this syndrome. The remaining patients presented with para- or quadriparesis. This suggests that intradural disc herniation should be considered preoperatively in patients in whom there is magnetic resonance imaging or myelographic evidence of cervical disc herniation and Brown-Sequard's syndrome. In patients who underwent anterior cervical discectomy for the treatment of intradural cervical disc herniations, better outcomes were demonstrated than in those in whom posterior procedures were performed. ( info)
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