Cases reported "Burns, Chemical"

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11/72. Cement burns: a review 1960-2000.

    We review the literature on cement burns of the skin published during the last 4 decades. 51 case reports were analyzed with special regard to common modes of injury, localization of cement exposure, preventive measures taken and treatment. Cement burns are injuries concerning professionals at the workplace as well as amateurs during do-it-yourself work. In 49% of the cases, no attempt to protect the skin had been made. The majority of injuries were located on the lower legs and knees. Full-thickness burns were reported in 66% of cases. Surgery had to be performed in 34%. Cement burns can be avoided by adequate skin protection. Although acute cement injuries may seem rare, prospective studies should be carried out for correct estimation of prevalence. The need for information on the harmful properties of cement in the occupational as well as the domestic environment is emphasized.
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keywords = exposure
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12/72. keratitis on exposure to dimethyl phosphorochloridothionate (dmpct).

    Six cases of exposure to Dimethy Phosphorochloridothionate (DMPCT) are reported. All patients suffered cornel injuries. Characteristically the corneal lesions (punctate keratitis) became apparent after an interval of at least eight hours. With proper treatment all patients recovered completely with no impairment of visual acuity.
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ranking = 5
keywords = exposure
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13/72. Fig leaf tanning lotion and sun-related burns: case reports.

    A sun tan is considered a symbol of well-being in our society, but incorrect methods of sun exposure can create serious problems. We present two cases of severe sun-related burns caused by fig leaf decoction used as home-made tanning lotion. Twenty four-thirty six hours after application and sun exposure, patients developed a phytophotodermatitis characterised by erythema, and blister formation involving all the photoexposed areas (45-70% BSA). Their general conditions became rapidly critical and they were admitted to our Burn Centre. The patients were discharged after 11 and 26 days, respectively. Haemolytic anaemia and retinal haemorrhages presented as systemic complications due to the furocoumarins present in the fig leaf decoction.
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ranking = 2
keywords = exposure
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14/72. Acute management of exposure to liquid ammonia.

    ammonia injury is an uncommon injury, but it is associated with high morbidity and mortality. This case report demonstrates the pathophysiology and treatment of both cutaneous burn wounds and inhalation injury caused by ammonia. Frequent bronchoscopy was used to attempt to avoid intubation and its associated morbidity. The patient remained extubated, but later he required skin grafts to close his wounds after healing of his pulmonary injury. A review of the management of inhalation injury is also discussed. ammonia injury can cause a severe inhalation injury. bronchoscopy can be a useful tool to avoid intubation.
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ranking = 4
keywords = exposure
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15/72. Desiccant-induced gastrointestinal burns in a child.

    Desiccants are commonly composed of non-toxic chemicals such as silica gel. A 2-y-old male unintentionally ingested the contents of a desiccant packet found in a container of imported Chinese cookies. He presented with vomiting, drooling and inability to drink. A caustic injury to his tongue and phaynx was noted. He improved over the next 12 h and was discharged a day later. The packet was found to contain caustic lime Although patients who ingest desiccant packets generally develop no clinical effects, ingestion of packets containing strong alkali may prove consequential. Providers should be aware of the potential for this toxicity before dismissing desiccant exposures as benign.
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ranking = 1
keywords = exposure
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16/72. Distraction of oral scars contractures following caustic ingestion. A form of conservative treatment.

    The chemical burns in the oral mucosa as consequence of accident of suicide attempt are relatively frequent. The evolution of the repairing process is conditioned by the quality and concentration of the caustic as by the location and time exposure of the affected region. At this report, we document a form of conservative treatment for the limitation of mouth opening, which the patient presented after swallowing a detergent acid. In order to obtain a minimal oral opening, a screwed cone, whose action mechanism was acting as a cradle between both jaws, was used. Once achieved a 10 mm opening, it was possible to use an external distractor to accomplish a continuous traction.
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ranking = 1
keywords = exposure
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17/72. Ocular hydrofluoric acid burns.

    A 30-year-old man sustained exposure of his eyes, face, and neck involving 4% of body surface area to hydrofluoric acid. He was treated with immediate lavage and topical calcium gluconate. Because free fluoride ions from ocular and facial exposures can form complexes with body stores of calcium and magnesium, the patient was transferred to a burn unit for cardiac and electrolyte monitoring. He was also treated with calcium gluconate skin injections, pulmonary nebulizer therapy, and topical antibiotics and corticosteroids. In another case, a 25-year-old man with less severe exposure to hydrofluoric acid was treated as an outpatient with topical antibiotics, corticosteroids, and cycloplegia. If an ophthalmologist is the first to treat a patient with chemical exposure, the history of hydrofluoric acid exposure must be obtained, and the burn team and other medical specialists must be quickly consulted to avoid potentially fatal complications.
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ranking = 5
keywords = exposure
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18/72. Acute and long term respiratory damage following inhalation of ammonia.

    A lifelong non-smoker who was the victim of a massive accidental exposure to anhydrous ammonia gas was followed up for 10 years. In the acute phase the patient presented with severe tracheobronchitis and respiratory failure, caused by very severe burns of the respiratory mucosa. After some improvement he was left with severe and fixed airways obstruction. Isotope studies of mucociliary clearance, computed tomography, and bronchography showed mild bronchiectasis. It is concluded that acute exposure to high concentrations of ammonia may lead to acute respiratory injury but also to long term impairment of respiratory function.
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ranking = 2
keywords = exposure
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19/72. Experience of a chemical burn due to 3,5-dichloro 2,4,6-trifluoropyridine.

    An example is reported of a burn caused by cutaneous exposure to 3,5-dichloro 2,4,6-trifluoropyridine (DCTFP) involving 25 per cent of the body surface. A striking feature was the development of the appearance of the burn over the first 72h postinjury. Healing was nevertheless spontaneous. The management of the injury is discussed.
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ranking = 1
keywords = exposure
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20/72. An unusual cause of burn injury: fig leaf decoction used as a remedy for a dermatitis of unknown etiology.

    Medicinal plant extracts are commonly used worldwide. Their use relies mostly on historical and anecdotal evidence and might be so hazardous. Phytophotodermatitis is a well-known entity that is caused by the sequential exposure to certain species of plants containing furocoumarins and then to sunlight. In this article, superficial burn lesions caused by fig leaf decoction that was applied to a patient's both upper extremity as a remedy for a dermatitis of unknown etiology is reported. Direct sun exposure is an essential component of phytophotodermatitis. All reported cases to date have in common that patients are exposed to direct sunlight or to artificial UVA lights (like solarium) of varying durations. In our case neither direct sun exposure, other than inevitable indoor UVA influence, nor blister formation was present. The etiologic factors, symptoms, signs, course, and treatment alternatives for phytophotodermatitis are also reviewed briefly.
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ranking = 3
keywords = exposure
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