Cases reported "Burns, Chemical"

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1/34. Combined use of an amniotic membrane and tissue adhesive in treating corneal perforation: a case report.

    We report a new method combining the use of an amniotic membrane and cyanocrylate tissue adhesive to seal a corneal perforation. A 47-year-old male suffered from an alkali injury complicated with corneal melting and perforation in the left eye. We placed an amniotic membrane of optimal size in the anterior chamber directly under the corneal perforation lesion. The cyanocrylate tissue adhesive was then applied over the perforation site and sealed successfully. Three weeks later, the tissue adhesive had dislodged. The amniotic membrane had sealed the perforated lesion and was well adhered to the surrounding corneal tissue with complete epithelial covering. Vision was 20/25 six months after the operation. The combined use of an amniotic membrane and tissue adhesive is a promising method in the treatment of corneal perforation.
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2/34. Amniotic membrane transplantation for acute chemical or thermal burns.

    PURPOSE: To determine whether preserved human amniotic membrane (AM) can be used to treat ocular burns in the acute stage. DESIGN: Prospective, noncomparative, interventional case series. PARTICIPANTS: Thirteen eyes from 11 patients with acute burns, 10 eyes with chemical burns and 3 with thermal burns of grades II-III (7 eyes) and grade IV (6 eyes), treated at 7 different facilities. methods: patients received amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) within 2 weeks after the injury. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Integrity of ocular surface epithelium and visual acuity during 9 months of follow-up. RESULTS: Ten patients were male and one patient was female; most were young (38.2 /- 10.6 years). For a follow-up of 8.8 4.7 months, 11 of 13 eyes (84.63%) showed epithelialization within 2 to 5 weeks (23.7 /- 9.8 days), and final visual acuity improved > or = 6 lines (6 eyes), 4 to 5 lines (2 eyes), and 1 to 3 lines (2 eyes); only one eye experienced a symblepharon. Eyes with burns of grade II to III showed more visual improvement (7.3 /- 3 lines) than those with burns of grade IV (2.3 /- 3.0 lines; P < 0.05, unpaired t test). In the group with grade II or III burns, none had limbal stem cell deficiency. All eyes in the group with grade IV burns did experience limbal stem cell deficiency. CONCLUSIONS: Amniotic membrane transplantation is effective in promoting re-epithelialization and reducing inflammation, thus preventing scarring sequelae in the late stage. In mild to moderate burns, AMT alone rapidly restores both corneal and conjunctival surfaces. In severe burns, however, it restores the conjunctival ocular surface without debilitating symblepharon and reduces limbal stromal inflammation, but does not prevent limbal stem cell deficiency, which requires further limbal stem cell transplantation. These results underscore the importance of immediate intervention in the acute stage of eyes with severely damaged ocular surface. Further prospective randomized studies including a control group are required to determine the effectiveness of AMT in acute chemical and thermal burns of the eye.
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3/34. Anhydrous ammonia burns case report and review of the literature.

    Chemical burns are associated with significant morbidity, especially anhydrous ammonia burns. Anhydrous ammonia is a colorless, pungent gas that is stored and transported under pressure in liquid form. A 28 year-old patient suffered 45% total body surface area of second and third degree burns as well as inhalational injury from an anhydrous ammonia explosion. Along with fluid resuscitation, the patient's body was scrubbed every 6 h with sterile water for the first 48 h to decrease the skin pH from 10 to 6-8. He subsequently underwent a total of seven wound debridements; initially with allograft and then autograft. On post burn day 45, he was discharged. The injuries associated with anhydrous ammonia burns are specific to the effects of ammonium hydroxide. Severity of symptoms and tissue damage produced is directly related to the concentration of hydroxyl ions. Liquefactive necrosis results in superficial to full-thickness tissue loss. The affinity of anhydrous ammonia and its byproducts for mucous membranes can result in hemoptysis, pharyngitis, pulmonary edema, and bronchiectasis. Ocular sequelae include iritis, glaucoma, cataracts, and retinal atrophy. The desirability of treating anhydrous ammonia burns immediately cannot be overemphasized. clothing must be removed quickly, and irrigation with water initiated at the scene and continued for the first 24 h. Resuscitative measures should be started as well as early debridement of nonviable skin. patients with significant facial or pharyngeal burns should be intubated, and the eyes irrigated until a conjunctivae sac pH below 8.5 is achieved. Although health care professionals need to be prepared to treat chemical burns, educating the public, especially those workers in the agricultural and industrial setting, should be the first line of prevention.
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4/34. Amniotic membrane transplantation in acute chemical and thermal injury.

    PURPOSE: To present a case of chemical injury and a case of thermal injury treated by amniotic membrane transplantation in acute phase. methods: case reports. An eye with sodium hydroxide injury, opaque cornea, and limbal ischemia of more than 180 degrees and an eye with hot tea injury, opaque cornea, stromal edema, and scarring were treated by amniotic membrane transplantation within the first few weeks of injury. RESULTS: In the eye with sodium hydroxide injury, 4 months after amniotic membrane transplantation, the ocular surface is stable, superficial corneal scarring with vascularization is present, and visual acuity is 20/25. In the eye with thermal injury, 6 months after amniotic membrane transplantation, the ocular surface is stable, but there is superficial scarring and vascularization, and visual acuity is 20/20. CONCLUSIONS: Amniotic membrane transplantation can be considered in chemical injury with severe limbal ischemia and in severe thermal injury in acute phase. Long-term studies are warranted to evaluate further the efficacy of amniotic membrane transplantation in these clinical situations.
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5/34. Development of a newly designed double-fixed Seoul-type keratoprosthesis.

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a newly designed double-fixed keratoprosthesis (Seoul-type keratoprosthesis [S-KPro]) and to assess its mechanical stability and biocompatibility. methods: Twenty-five rabbits were divided into 4 groups by fixation technique, amniotic membrane (AM) implantation, and skirt material. The eyes were studied with the use of slitlamp, light, and electron microscopy. Stress testing was performed. In addition, 2 human subjects underwent S-KPro implantation. Best-corrected visual acuity was checked, and ophthalmic examination was performed. RESULTS: The average retention period of the group receiving double-fixated polyurethane-S-KPro with AM was longer (>24 weeks) than that of the others. Fibroblast invasions were found in polyurethane pores but not in polytetrafluoroethylene (Gore-Tex) pores on light microscopy. The minimal pressure that induced aqueous leakage was greater than 250 mm Hg in all of the tested eyes. Two human subjects have maintained a good postoperative condition for 18 and 8 months. CONCLUSIONS: The double-fixation technique of applied S-KPro and AM appears to be helpful in improving the stability of the keratoprosthesis. Polyurethane with relatively large pore size (40 microm) may be used successfully as a material for the keratoprosthesis skirt. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Our results may be important for improving the clinical outcome of keratoprosthesis.
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ranking = 0.125
keywords = membrane
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6/34. Hypocalcaemia and hypomagnesaemia due to hydrofluoric acid.

    hydrofluoric acid readily penetrates the skin and mucous membranes, causing deep tissue layer destruction. Dermal exposure can produce hypocalcaemia, hypomagnesaemia, hyperkalaemia, cardiac dysrhythmias and death. We report the case of a 52-year-old man who presented hypocalcaemia and hypomagnesaemia due to occupational dermal contact with hydrofluoric acid. Hypocalcaemia and hypomagnesaemia were corrected by i.v. administration of calcium gluconate and magnesium sulphate.
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7/34. Failure of amniotic membrane transplantation in the treatment of acute ocular burns.

    AIM: To report the failure of amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) for ocular surface reconstruction in patients with severe acute chemical and thermal burns. methods: Four eyes of three patients who suffered severe chemical (n=3) and thermal (n=1) burns were studied. The aim of AMT was to prevent symblepharon formation, promote conjunctival regeneration, inhibit corneal melting by promoting epithelialisation, and to protect the ocular surface while associated lid burns were treated. AMT was used to cover the entire ocular surface of all the severely burnt and ischaemic eyes, 2-3 weeks after the injury. Where indicated, AMT was repeated by itself or in combination with other procedures in all patients. RESULTS: Three of the four eyes developed symblepharon and progressive corneal melt requiring urgent tectonic keratoplasty. All four eyes had persistent epithelial defects. Less than 25% of conjunctival regeneration occurred in three eyes. Two eyes autoeviscerated, one patient underwent lid sparing exenteration for a painful blind eye and one eye became phthysical. CONCLUSIONS: AMT did not help to restore the ocular surface or preserve the integrity of the eye in all our patients with severe acute burns, when used by itself or in combination with other surgical procedures. This reflects the extreme severity of the ocular burns in these patients and, in turn, draws attention to the fact that the current classification system does not adequately reflect such severity. In the current system such burns would be grouped under grade IV injuries to the eye (more than 50% limbal ischaemia). The prognosis of patients with 100% limbal ischaemia is much worse than patients with just over 50% limbal ischaemia. This inadequacy of the classification system probably also explains the difference between outcomes of management of grade IV burns (with AMT) in this series, compared with others.
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ranking = 0.625
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8/34. Phenotypic study of a case receiving a keratolimbal allograft and amniotic membrane for total limbal stem cell deficiency.

    PURPOSE: To report the expression pattern of key molecules by the reconstructed corneal epithelium after a keratolimbal allograft (KLAL) and amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) for total limbal stem cell deficiency. DESIGN: Interventional case report. METHOD: A 50-year-old woman with severe chemical burns in both eyes received an AMT as a temporary patch at the acute stage, and a KLAL with AMT as a graft at the chronic stage for total limbal stem cell deficiency. The corneal button removed during subsequent corneal transplantation was submitted for immunofluorescence staining with monoclonal antibodies against keratin K3, MUC5AC, connexin 43, integrins alpha3beta1 and alpha6beta4, and laminin 5 for comparison with a normal cornea. RESULTS: Histologically, a normal stratified corneal epithelium has five to six cell layers that lay on the thick amniotic membrane basement membrane. The phenotype was of a corneal origin, based on expression of positive keratin K3, negative MUC5AC, and positive connexin 43. Furthermore, intact basement membrane complexes were present, evidenced by positive staining to integrins alpha3beta1 and alpha6beta4 and to laminin 5. CONCLUSIONS: A normal corneal epithelial phenotype with normal basement membrane complexes was restored after a KLAL and AMT in a case with total limbal stem cell deficiency.
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ranking = 1.125
keywords = membrane
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9/34. Temporary amniotic membrane patching for acute chemical burns.

    PURPOSE: To describe the surgical technique, and its usefulness, of temporary amniotic membrane patching (AMP) in the acute phase of ocular chemical injury. methods: Temporary AMP with modification in suture placement was performed on five eyes of five consecutive patients inflicted with acute chemical injury having a greater than grade II injury by the Roper-Hall classification. RESULTS: All patients reported herein presented with a large epithelial defect on the cornea and conjunctiva. Case 3 was classified as grade III while the other four cases were classified as grade II. The causative chemical agents were anhydrous acetic acid in Case 1, calcium oxide in Case 2, sodium hydroxide in Case 3, sodium silicate in Case 4, and sulphuric acid in Case 5. All cases experienced rapid relief of pain after AMP. Epithelialization of the cornea with improvement of visual acuity was observed in all cases when the amniotic membrane was removed within 2 weeks after surgery. During the mean follow-up of 19.6 months, the ocular surface remained stable and no cicatricial complications were noted. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that immediate AMP is quite useful for managing moderately severe acute ocular chemical injury by facilitating rapid epithelialization and pain relief, and securing ocular surface integrity.
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ranking = 0.75
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10/34. Use of autologous cultured limbal and conjunctival epithelium in a patient with severe bilateral ocular surface disease induced by acid injury: a case report of unique application.

    PURPOSE: Reconstruction of the ocular surface in a case of severe bilateral partial limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) with extensive symblephara using autologous cultured conjunctival and limbal epithelium. CASE REPORT: A 31-year-old woman presented with severe bilateral ocular surface disease with partial limbal stem cell deficiency, symblephara, lid and facial scarring, with a vision of 20/400 and counting fingers at 1 m in both eyes. Limbal and conjunctival tissue was harvested from the healthy-appearing left eye and used to generate two sheets of composite epithelium consisting of central limbal and peripheral conjunctival cells. The limbal tissues were explanted in the central region while the conjunctival tissues were explanted on the periphery of the deepithelialized human amniotic membrane (HAM) and nurtured using human corneal epithelial cell medium. After successful generation of a monolayer from both tissues had been confirmed, the composite of cultivated limbal and conjunctival epithelium with HAM was transplanted in each eye after excision of fibrous tissue and release of symblephara. One year postoperatively, the patient had a best spectacle-corrected visual acuity of 20/40 in the right eye (preoperative acuity 20/400) and counting fingers at 1 m in the left eye (same as preoperative) with a stable ocular surface. CONCLUSIONS: Autologous cultured epithelial transplantation is as an excellent option in selected patients with bilateral partial LSCD with small area(s) of healthy limbus in either eye and avoids the attendant risk of rejection and cost and potential toxicity of immunosuppression in allogeneic tissue transplantation. This case also highlights the feasibility of generating a composite culture of limbal and conjunctival epithelium using a single amniotic membrane.
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