Cases reported "Burns, Chemical"

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1/55. Unusual intermediate-term outcome in three cases of limbal autograft transplantation.

    OBJECTIVE: To report an unusual intermediate-term outcome after limbal autograft transplantation for unilateral, severe chemical burns. DESIGN: case reports of three consecutive cases. PARTICIPANTS: Three patients with a history of chemical burns. The fellow eye was clinically uninvolved in all patients. Surgery was indicated for conjunctivalization (cases 1 and 3) and persistent epithelial defect (case 2). INTERVENTION: Three (cases 2 and 3) or four (case 1) 1.25-clock-hour-wide limbal grafts were harvested from the fellow eye and transplanted to the limbus in the affected eye. Surface re-epithelialization, improvement in visual acuity, and maintenance of surface stability were monitored. RESULTS: Limbal grafts were effective in re-epithelialization of the corneal surface within 4 weeks in all cases. Symptomatic relief and improvement in visual acuity were noted during early follow-up. However, a progressive conjunctival ingrowth that tended to override the grafts and encroach the visual axis was noted over the course of a year in all three recipient eyes. CONCLUSIONS: Limbal autograft transplantation is an effective method for surface re-epithelialization in strictly unilateral chemical burns. Caution should be exercised in case selection. The authors' experience suggests a variable degree of attenuation in viability of transplanted limbus. Close follow-up of operated eyes is necessary to determine the long-term efficacy of limbal transplants as a source of corneal phenotypic cells.
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2/55. Limbal transplantation after chemical injuries of the eye.

    PURPOSE: To illustrate the benefit of limbal stem cell transplantation in three eyes with severe ocular surface failure due to chemical burns. methods: In two patients with monocular corneal scarring and vascularization after chronic chemical burns, a limbal tissue autograft was transferred from the unaffected fellow eye. A complete superficial keratectomy was performed on the host eye. One patient with bilateral ocular surface disorder received an eccentrically trephined corneolimbal allograft. To prevent immunologic rejection of the transplanted limbus, this patient was treated with systemic Ciclosporin A. RESULTS: Postoperatively the limbal autografts grew a normal epithelium on the recipient eye with less vascularization and scarring. Our two patients reported a significant reduction in symptoms (redness, pain, photophobia) and an improved visual acuity. The corneolimbal allograft has remained clear for five months postoperatively. CONCLUSION: In strictly unilateral conditions of limbal deficiency, transplantation of healthy limbal tissue from the normal fellow eye may result in a stable ocular surface and a quiet and comfortable eye. Transplantation of an eccentrically trephined corneolimbal allograft under systemic Ciclosporin A cover may be an option in the rehabilitation of patients with severe bilateral stem cell deficiencies.
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3/55. Amniotic membrane transplantation for acute chemical or thermal burns.

    PURPOSE: To determine whether preserved human amniotic membrane (AM) can be used to treat ocular burns in the acute stage. DESIGN: Prospective, noncomparative, interventional case series. PARTICIPANTS: Thirteen eyes from 11 patients with acute burns, 10 eyes with chemical burns and 3 with thermal burns of grades II-III (7 eyes) and grade IV (6 eyes), treated at 7 different facilities. methods: patients received amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) within 2 weeks after the injury. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Integrity of ocular surface epithelium and visual acuity during 9 months of follow-up. RESULTS: Ten patients were male and one patient was female; most were young (38.2 /- 10.6 years). For a follow-up of 8.8 4.7 months, 11 of 13 eyes (84.63%) showed epithelialization within 2 to 5 weeks (23.7 /- 9.8 days), and final visual acuity improved > or = 6 lines (6 eyes), 4 to 5 lines (2 eyes), and 1 to 3 lines (2 eyes); only one eye experienced a symblepharon. Eyes with burns of grade II to III showed more visual improvement (7.3 /- 3 lines) than those with burns of grade IV (2.3 /- 3.0 lines; P < 0.05, unpaired t test). In the group with grade II or III burns, none had limbal stem cell deficiency. All eyes in the group with grade IV burns did experience limbal stem cell deficiency. CONCLUSIONS: Amniotic membrane transplantation is effective in promoting re-epithelialization and reducing inflammation, thus preventing scarring sequelae in the late stage. In mild to moderate burns, AMT alone rapidly restores both corneal and conjunctival surfaces. In severe burns, however, it restores the conjunctival ocular surface without debilitating symblepharon and reduces limbal stromal inflammation, but does not prevent limbal stem cell deficiency, which requires further limbal stem cell transplantation. These results underscore the importance of immediate intervention in the acute stage of eyes with severely damaged ocular surface. Further prospective randomized studies including a control group are required to determine the effectiveness of AMT in acute chemical and thermal burns of the eye.
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4/55. Autologous limbal transplantation in unilateral chemical burns.

    PURPOSE: To describe the results of autologous limbal transplantation in the treatment of unilateral chemical burns. patients AND methods: Two patients, a 40-year-old male (case 1) and a 35-year-old male (case 2), experienced grade III chemical trauma and were treated with autologous limbal grafting (case 1) after a postaccident period of 3 and 9 months, respectively. Change in visual acuity, epithelial healing time and postsurgical topography healing patterns were documented. RESULTS: Snellen visual acuity improved from 0.1 to 1.0 in both cases. Epithelial healing time for cases 1 and 2 were 4 and 2 weeks, respectively. corneal topography of case 1 showed an induced inferior steepness type of asymmetrical astigmatism in the graft area. Serial topography showed no induced astigmatism in the donor eyes. CONCLUSION: Autologous limbal grafting is an adequate treatment for selected cases of unilateral chemical burns and facilitates rapid improvement in visual function. Early limbal grafting in case 1 resulted in rapid re-epithelialization and prevention of complications.
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5/55. Amniotic membrane transplantation in acute chemical and thermal injury.

    PURPOSE: To present a case of chemical injury and a case of thermal injury treated by amniotic membrane transplantation in acute phase. methods: case reports. An eye with sodium hydroxide injury, opaque cornea, and limbal ischemia of more than 180 degrees and an eye with hot tea injury, opaque cornea, stromal edema, and scarring were treated by amniotic membrane transplantation within the first few weeks of injury. RESULTS: In the eye with sodium hydroxide injury, 4 months after amniotic membrane transplantation, the ocular surface is stable, superficial corneal scarring with vascularization is present, and visual acuity is 20/25. In the eye with thermal injury, 6 months after amniotic membrane transplantation, the ocular surface is stable, but there is superficial scarring and vascularization, and visual acuity is 20/20. CONCLUSIONS: Amniotic membrane transplantation can be considered in chemical injury with severe limbal ischemia and in severe thermal injury in acute phase. Long-term studies are warranted to evaluate further the efficacy of amniotic membrane transplantation in these clinical situations.
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6/55. Development of a newly designed double-fixed Seoul-type keratoprosthesis.

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a newly designed double-fixed keratoprosthesis (Seoul-type keratoprosthesis [S-KPro]) and to assess its mechanical stability and biocompatibility. methods: Twenty-five rabbits were divided into 4 groups by fixation technique, amniotic membrane (AM) implantation, and skirt material. The eyes were studied with the use of slitlamp, light, and electron microscopy. Stress testing was performed. In addition, 2 human subjects underwent S-KPro implantation. Best-corrected visual acuity was checked, and ophthalmic examination was performed. RESULTS: The average retention period of the group receiving double-fixated polyurethane-S-KPro with AM was longer (>24 weeks) than that of the others. Fibroblast invasions were found in polyurethane pores but not in polytetrafluoroethylene (Gore-Tex) pores on light microscopy. The minimal pressure that induced aqueous leakage was greater than 250 mm Hg in all of the tested eyes. Two human subjects have maintained a good postoperative condition for 18 and 8 months. CONCLUSIONS: The double-fixation technique of applied S-KPro and AM appears to be helpful in improving the stability of the keratoprosthesis. Polyurethane with relatively large pore size (40 microm) may be used successfully as a material for the keratoprosthesis skirt. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Our results may be important for improving the clinical outcome of keratoprosthesis.
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7/55. Exposure to liquid sulfur mustard.

    Chemical weapons continue to pose a serious threat to humanity. With the use of chemical weapons by terrorists in tokyo, and the projected disarming of the chemical weapon stockpile in this country, the possibility that emergency physicians will encounter patients contaminated by chemical munitions, such as sulfur mustard, exists. Mustard is a vesicating agent with a long latency between exposure and symptoms. Exposure can cause burns, conjunctivitis, pneumonia, and death. We describe 3 workers exposed to mustard at a chemical weapon storage facility. This article reports the first case of an exposure to mustard at a storage facility, as well as the first documented incident occurring in the united states. All physicians who manage patients in an acute care setting should be aware of the presentation and emergency treatments involving patients contaminated with mustard.
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8/55. Failure of amniotic membrane transplantation in the treatment of acute ocular burns.

    AIM: To report the failure of amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) for ocular surface reconstruction in patients with severe acute chemical and thermal burns. methods: Four eyes of three patients who suffered severe chemical (n=3) and thermal (n=1) burns were studied. The aim of AMT was to prevent symblepharon formation, promote conjunctival regeneration, inhibit corneal melting by promoting epithelialisation, and to protect the ocular surface while associated lid burns were treated. AMT was used to cover the entire ocular surface of all the severely burnt and ischaemic eyes, 2-3 weeks after the injury. Where indicated, AMT was repeated by itself or in combination with other procedures in all patients. RESULTS: Three of the four eyes developed symblepharon and progressive corneal melt requiring urgent tectonic keratoplasty. All four eyes had persistent epithelial defects. Less than 25% of conjunctival regeneration occurred in three eyes. Two eyes autoeviscerated, one patient underwent lid sparing exenteration for a painful blind eye and one eye became phthysical. CONCLUSIONS: AMT did not help to restore the ocular surface or preserve the integrity of the eye in all our patients with severe acute burns, when used by itself or in combination with other surgical procedures. This reflects the extreme severity of the ocular burns in these patients and, in turn, draws attention to the fact that the current classification system does not adequately reflect such severity. In the current system such burns would be grouped under grade IV injuries to the eye (more than 50% limbal ischaemia). The prognosis of patients with 100% limbal ischaemia is much worse than patients with just over 50% limbal ischaemia. This inadequacy of the classification system probably also explains the difference between outcomes of management of grade IV burns (with AMT) in this series, compared with others.
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9/55. Efficacy of hexafluorine for emergent decontamination of hydrofluoric acid eye and skin splashes.

    Hexafluorine is an amphoteric, hypertonic, polyvalent compound for decontaminating hydrofluoric acid (HF) eye and skin splashes. In a German metallurgy facility during the period of 1994-1998, all eye or skin splashes with 40% HF alone or with a 6% HF/15% HNO3 mixture were initially decontaminated with Hexafluorine within 2 min following the splash at the accident site by the victims themselves or co-workers who witnessed the accident. Eleven workers using 40% HF or a 6% HF/15% HNO3 mixture sustained eye (2 cases) or skin (10 cases) splashes (1 combined) during 1994-1998. Hexafluorine was used within 2 min, and a second Hexafluorine decontamination was done on arrival at the plant infirmary. No further medical or surgical treatment was needed, no workers developed chemical burns, and none lost work time. These II cases demonstrate the efficacy of Hexafluorine in decontaminating HF or combined HF/HNO3 splashes.
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10/55. Acute management of white phosphorus burn.

    White phosphorus is a combustible solid that is used in many of the smoke devices that are prevalent throughout the military arsenal. Exposure to phosphorus-containing compounds causes serious, often fatal, burns and can be the source of significant morbidity and lengthy hospital stays. I present the case of an individual with serious cutaneous phosphorus burns suffered at a munitions manufacturing plant. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the emergent treatments necessary in such patients and to discuss decontamination in the phosphorus-burned patient. phosphorus-containing munitions are prevalent throughout the military arsenal, and all military physicians should be aware of these treatments.
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