Cases reported "Burns, Chemical"

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1/7. Failure of amniotic membrane transplantation in the treatment of acute ocular burns.

    AIM: To report the failure of amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) for ocular surface reconstruction in patients with severe acute chemical and thermal burns. methods: Four eyes of three patients who suffered severe chemical (n=3) and thermal (n=1) burns were studied. The aim of AMT was to prevent symblepharon formation, promote conjunctival regeneration, inhibit corneal melting by promoting epithelialisation, and to protect the ocular surface while associated lid burns were treated. AMT was used to cover the entire ocular surface of all the severely burnt and ischaemic eyes, 2-3 weeks after the injury. Where indicated, AMT was repeated by itself or in combination with other procedures in all patients. RESULTS: Three of the four eyes developed symblepharon and progressive corneal melt requiring urgent tectonic keratoplasty. All four eyes had persistent epithelial defects. Less than 25% of conjunctival regeneration occurred in three eyes. Two eyes autoeviscerated, one patient underwent lid sparing exenteration for a painful blind eye and one eye became phthysical. CONCLUSIONS: AMT did not help to restore the ocular surface or preserve the integrity of the eye in all our patients with severe acute burns, when used by itself or in combination with other surgical procedures. This reflects the extreme severity of the ocular burns in these patients and, in turn, draws attention to the fact that the current classification system does not adequately reflect such severity. In the current system such burns would be grouped under grade IV injuries to the eye (more than 50% limbal ischaemia). The prognosis of patients with 100% limbal ischaemia is much worse than patients with just over 50% limbal ischaemia. This inadequacy of the classification system probably also explains the difference between outcomes of management of grade IV burns (with AMT) in this series, compared with others.
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2/7. Alkali retinopathy.

    Two patients were seen with intense alkali burns of the eye and prominent chorioretinal damage. The course of one case illustrates the development of such lesions. The second case suggests that retinal damage can be the limiting factor in the visual prognosis following such burns.
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3/7. Ocular emergency--a case report.

    BACKGROUND: Ocular emergencies are not uncommon and one of the causes is chemical burns. Irrigation is the major emergency therapeutic measure of such burns and this also has an impact on the prognosis. We hereby present a case report of chemical burns. METHOD/RESULT: The case report of a 33year old factory worker presenting with history of visual loss following splash of cement dust unto his face is hereby presented with literature review. CONCLUSION: We conclude that people working in high-risk industries for chemical injuries should wear protective devices and be given health education as to what they can do in cases of accident.
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4/7. brain abscess after dilatation of esophageal stricture.

    Two children, below 15 years of age, developed brain abscesses after esophageal dilation. They were among 40 children treated for supratentorial brain abscesses during the past 10 years. Pus culture of one of the abscesses was peptostreptococcus, which is a common oropharyngeal flora. Clinicians should be aware of this complication since the prognosis is usually satisfactory after prompt treatment.
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5/7. Intoxication following the inhalation of hydrogen fluoride.

    The prognosis for fluoride inhalation is poor, owing to the extreme toxicity of the substance and lack of satisfactory treatment. In the case of massive inhalation, the slow, progressive destruction of the bronchial mucosa and lung tissue will be lethal. Irrespective of the dose, a transient restriction in renal function or acute renal failure will occur. The transient increase in transaminase seems to be caused by several factors. Our cases show that the evaluation of fluoride levels in biological material is difficult, as dietary intake, e.g., in drinking water, may complicate acute or chronic occupational exposure.
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6/7. Ocular alkali burn associated with automobile air-bag activation.

    Alkali burns of the eye can result in permanent visual impairment and are therefore potentially devastating. Immedicate diagnosis and treatment are essential to a good prognosis. The authors report the case of a 52-year-old woman who suffered alkali keratitis as the result of the activation of an automobile air bag. This type of injury will be seen more frequently as more cars are equipped with air bags and should be suspected in drivers and passengers involved in accidents in which air bags have been activated.
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7/7. Injury to the cornea due to fish bile.

    A retrospective study of 207 patients with chemical eye injuries in northern norway revealed that fish bile was the causal agent in 14%. Fish bile caused superficial corneal erosions in 28 of 29 cases. All but one of the patients were professional fishermen or fish industry workers. In one case delayed medical care led to serious corneal opacity. Provided that there was immediate and abundant rinsing of the affected eye and good medical care, the prognosis of fish bile injuries was fairly good. The mechanisms for corneal damage due to fish bile are not clear.
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