Cases reported "burns, chemical"

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1/520. microstomia following facial burns.

    Deep burns to the face and lips often lead to the formation of scar tissue and contracture of the perioral tissues with marked reduction of the ability of the patient to open his mouth. The mouth tends to be turned into a wrinkled, rigid, unyielding structure, resembling the semi-rigid mouth of the fish. Such burns are most frequently caused by electricity or flames, and less frequently by chemical substances. The deformity caused by microstomia is painful both to the patient and to his family. Additionally, there is serious functional loss, it is practically impossible to smile, speech becomes difficult, and the movement of the mandible is limited. In severe cases feeding has to be performed with a straw. oral hygiene is compromised and access for the administration of dental care is impossible, hence limited to extractions. Techniques to prevent or, if not prevented, surgically correct the resultant microstomia are described, followed by a case report on a pediatric patient, whose microstomia was surgically corrected several years following the injury. ( info)

2/520. Cement burns.

    Four cases are presented of men who sustained burns after contact with premixed concrete. The pathogenesis of the condition is discussed. ( info)

3/520. Self-inflicted burn injuries: an 11-year retrospective study.

    The burns unit at the Royal Brisbane Hospital accepted a total of 2275 admissions from 1986 to 1996. During this 11-year period, 65 cases of self-inflicted burn injury were treated, which made up 2.9% of the total number of admissions. A mortality rate of 21.5% (14 patients) is noted, with all patients dying after admission to the hospital. A common feature of people that self-inflict burn injuries is a psychiatric history, with many patients having histories of self-harm or suicide attempts. Two distinct groups were identified--those with suicidal intent and those with intent of self-harm. Those patients with self-inflicted injuries have an increased mean of 31.4% total body surface area burned as compared with those patients whose injuries are accounted for as accidental, which have a mean total body surface area burned of 10%. Additionally, the mean length of stay in the hospital for patients with self-inflicted injuries was 40 days for acute injuries, which is prolonged; the mean length of stay for acute injuries that were not self-inflicted was 14 days. This investigation discovered 3 cases of repeated self-inflicted burn injury. ( info)

4/520. Malignant glaucoma after diode laser cyclophotocoagulation.

    PURPOSE: To report a case of malignant glaucoma after diode laser cyclophotocoagulation. METHOD: Case report. RESULTS: A 45-year-old man with uncontrolled secondary glaucoma in his right eye after corneoscleral graft and cataract extraction underwent diode laser cyclophotocoagulation. The right eye was aphakic, with an intact posterior capsule. Two weeks later, the patient presented with blurred vision, edematous cornea, and flat anterior chamber. The posterior capsule was touching the endothelium. intraocular pressure was 20 mm Hg. Repeated Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy was effective in reversing the malignant glaucoma attack, and the anterior chamber deepened. CONCLUSION: Malignant glaucoma can occur after diode laser cyclophotocoagulation. ( info)

5/520. Burns caused by monitoring equipment during anaesthesia.

    Hazards of monitoring during anaesthesia are burns, cardiac arrest or ventricular fibrillation, electric shock and false alarms caused by interference with the traces. The causative and contributory factors and the measures for the prevention of burns are discussed. ( info)

6/520. Helium vapour injury: a case report.

    We report a case in which quick freeze injury occurred to both hands by helium vapour at extremely low temperatures. At the time of injury the victim was wearing protective gloves which were removed quickly after the accident. This prompt removal of gloves reduced the depth and severity of the injury. Initially he was treated by rapid thawing by immersing the hands in luke warm water (37 degrees C) and administering heparin by drip to prevent microvascular thrombosis. Delayed skin grafting was performed with good functional recovery. The circumstances accompanying this injury and preventive measures are discussed. ( info)

7/520. Unusual intermediate-term outcome in three cases of limbal autograft transplantation.

    OBJECTIVE: To report an unusual intermediate-term outcome after limbal autograft transplantation for unilateral, severe chemical burns. DESIGN: case reports of three consecutive cases. PARTICIPANTS: Three patients with a history of chemical burns. The fellow eye was clinically uninvolved in all patients. Surgery was indicated for conjunctivalization (cases 1 and 3) and persistent epithelial defect (case 2). INTERVENTION: Three (cases 2 and 3) or four (case 1) 1.25-clock-hour-wide limbal grafts were harvested from the fellow eye and transplanted to the limbus in the affected eye. Surface re-epithelialization, improvement in visual acuity, and maintenance of surface stability were monitored. RESULTS: Limbal grafts were effective in re-epithelialization of the corneal surface within 4 weeks in all cases. Symptomatic relief and improvement in visual acuity were noted during early follow-up. However, a progressive conjunctival ingrowth that tended to override the grafts and encroach the visual axis was noted over the course of a year in all three recipient eyes. CONCLUSIONS: Limbal autograft transplantation is an effective method for surface re-epithelialization in strictly unilateral chemical burns. Caution should be exercised in case selection. The authors' experience suggests a variable degree of attenuation in viability of transplanted limbus. Close follow-up of operated eyes is necessary to determine the long-term efficacy of limbal transplants as a source of corneal phenotypic cells. ( info)

8/520. Cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive augmented tenoplasty: a new surgical procedure for bilateral severe chemical eye burns.

    PURPOSE: To report on cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive augmented tenoplasty, a new surgical procedure for bilateral severe chemical eye injuries. methods: A 26-year-old man presented with bilateral severe (grade IV) chemical burns involving the eye, periorbital tissues, face, and neck. Despite adequate medical therapy, corneal, limbal, and scleral ulceration progressed in both eyes. Secondary pseudomonas keratitis necessitated therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty in the right eye. Tenoplasty and glued-on rigid gas permeable contact lens were unsuccessful to arrest progression of corneolimboscleral ulceration in the left eye. We applied n-butyl cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive directly on the ulcerating corneal, limbal, and scleral surface to augment tenoplasty. RESULTS: The left ocular surface healed with resultant massive fibrous tissue proliferation and symblepharon on the nasal side. Ocular surface rehabilitation resulted in a vascularized leukomatous corneal opacity with upper temporal clear cornea. The patient achieved visual acuity of 6/36 in the left eye. CONCLUSION: We suggest that cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive-augmented tenoplasty can be undertaken to preserve ocular integrity and retain visual potential in a severe chemical eye injury. ( info)

9/520. Full-thickness burn to the hand from an automobile airbag.

    An 18-year-old male was involved in a single car motor vehicle accident in which the driver's side airbag was deployed. He presented to the trauma center with complex injuries to the left hand, lacerations to the scalp, and a full-thickness burn to the ulnar aspect of the right hand that included the hypothenar area and the fifth digit. The patient was admitted to the trauma center and received immediate consultation from the burn service. He underwent debridement and split-thickness skin grafting of 50 cm2 of the right hand on postburn day 3. The graft became necrotic and the patient underwent debridement of the skin and the abductor minimi muscle of the right hand on postburn day 32. Split-thickness skin grafting and release of flexion contracture were successfully completed 18 days later. The police and fire departments reported that the airbag showed signs of thermal destruction. Upon request, Honda motors submitted information from the TRW safety systems and material safety data sheet (Mesa, Ariz, issued 1989) that showed that airbag canisters contain the chemicals sodium azide and cupric oxide. water may react with sodium azide to form highly toxic and explosive hyfrazoic acid. These chemicals are converted to sodium hydroxide, which can cause significant chemical burns. In addition, these chemicals may ignite when exposed to live electrical wires or temperatures greater than 300 degrees F. We conclude that burns associated with damaged deployed airbags in motor vehicle accidents may be the results of both chemical and thermal injury. The extent of the burn wound may be underestimated, as our case illustrates. Full-thickness burns resulting from airbag deployment may require more aggressive initial debridement and treatment. ( info)

10/520. Chemical burn from alkaline batteries--a case report.

    A 2-year-old male was found to have a third degree (full thickness) burn on his rear right thigh. The father discovered the burn at a physician's office where the child was being treated for an ear infection. The physician notified authorities of suspected physical child abuse. ( info)
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