Cases reported "Burns, Inhalation"

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11/22. smoke inhalation injury from newer synthetic building materials--a patient who survived 205 days.

    A 25-year-old factory worker sustained inhalation injury and 2 per cent deep burns while fighting a fire in his factory (LSI factory) which was made of new synthetic building materials. He became unconscious and inhaled noxious substances from the smoke. Although he survived the acute stages following injury, his pulmonary function subsequently deteriorated with a damaged trachea and bronchi, repeated attacks of pneumonia, atelectasis, pneumothorax and lung fibrosis, leading to death with hypercapnia (PaCO2 more than 100 mmHg) after 205 days in hospital. autopsy revealed scarring contraction and dilatation of the trachea and bronchi, acquired bronchiectasis, lobular pneumonia, bleeding, hyperaemia and oedema of the lungs. Systemic administration of corticosteroids was only transiently beneficial in reducing the increased airway resistance.
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keywords = airway
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12/22. Respiratory injury in children: the histology of healing.

    Three children aged 18 months, 2 years and 3 years were involved in a house fire. Sadly, they all died. They did so at varying times after the incident, from almost immediately to 24 days. They all suffered a smoke inhalation injury. The histological findings from the large airways are presented and compared with reference to the stages in the healing process that they represent. Possible implications are discussed.
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13/22. Diffuse endobronchial polyposis following a titanium tetrachloride inhalation injury.

    We report a case of diffuse endobronchial polyps contributing to continued respiratory failure in a patient 5 wk after titanium tetrachloride inhalation injury. After the institution of corticosteroid therapy, the total number and size of remaining polyps were markedly reduced at which time the subject was successfully weaned from the ventilator. Follow-up bronchoscopy at 2 months, 5 months, and 1 yr postinjury revealed gradual but complete resolution of all polyps accompanied by improvement in the patient's obstructive airways disease. This delayed complication of inhalation injury has been previously reported as a complication of thermal respiratory injury, and may be an important contributing factor in prolonged or late respiratory failure in burn patients.
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keywords = airway
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14/22. Inhalation of liquid nitrogen vapor.

    A case of accidental inhalation of liquid nitrogen vapor is reported. The patient, a 29-year-old man, developed acute burns of his lips and oropharynx and presented with signs and symptoms of acute upper airway distress within an hour of the injury. The patient underwent emergency tracheostomy and was placed on intravenous dexamethasone and ampicillin. Large mucosal ulcers developed in the posterior hypopharynx and hard palate but the patient was discharged four days post operatively and had no permanent sequelae.
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keywords = airway
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15/22. The management of laryngotracheal stenosis in burned patients.

    Following burns of the upper respiratory tract, laryngotracheal stenosis is associated with considerable morbidity. This paper deals with the cumulative effect of various pathologic processes involved in burn trauma of the upper airway. Emphasis is placed on the extended use of endotracheal intubation and the avoidance of tracheostomy whenever possible. When laryngotracheal stenosis develops, it may be safely and successfully treated by prolonged stenting, as has been borne out by our experience with the T-shaped silicone tubes. Limited reconstructive procedures can be performed to facilitate proper placement of the stent. In our opinion, laryngotracheal resection and reconstruction are not the procedures of choice in burn cases. Our experience in following the preceding guidelines is described. Three illustrative cases serve to exemplify the difficulties and problems involved in the various stages of treatment and the results obtained. The patients are symptom-free 18 to 24 months following stenting, and all enjoy an adequate airway and good voice. There were no complications resulting from this treatment and we suggest that it is worthy of trial.
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keywords = airway
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16/22. Tracheoplasty for tracheal stenosis in the pediatric burned patient.

    Until recently, the only therapy available for a tracheal stricture has been repeated dilations of the stenotic area or resection and anastomosis. Upper-airway burns in the pediatric patient have occasionally resulted in tracheal stenosis. Two children with a long tracheal stenosis secondary to inhalation injury have been successfully treated surgically. A costal cartilage graft has been used in these two children in the management of a long tracheal stenosis. Both have an adequate airway, and future surgical correction of a subglottic stenosis is planned for both. The results, although initially successful, will need to be tested by time before they can be considered the definitive treatment for long areas of tracheal stenosis.
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ranking = 2
keywords = airway
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17/22. Acute and chronic effects of ammonia burns on the respiratory tract.

    Exposure to anhydrous ammonia can result in substantial injury to the respiratory system, eyes, and integument. In this retrospective study, we present the acute and chronic respiratory manifestations in 12 patients exposed to anhydrous ammonia as a result of the same accident. survivors suffering significant ill effects are separated into two groups according to history and clinical course. One group of patients sustained exposure to high concentrations of ammonia over a short period of time. They manifested upper airway obstruction and required early intubation or tracheostomy. These patients recovered with few pulmonary sequelae and are presently in good pulmonary health. The second group of patients were exposed to lower concentrations of gas over a prolonged period of time and did not manifest upper airway obstruction. In this group of patients, however, significant long-term pulmonary sequelae are manifested.
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ranking = 6.4778602458602
keywords = airway obstruction, airway, obstruction
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18/22. Formic acid inhalation injury: a case report.

    We report a case in which a patient sustained an inhalation injury as a result of aerosolized formic acid. The patient sustained a partial-thickness burn to the face from a chemical spray; however, as a result of aerosolization, he also inhaled formic acid. This resulted in a reversible pulmonary chemical injury. Inhalation of formic acid results in a reactive airway dysfunction syndrome--a common response to inhalation of an occupational irritant.
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keywords = airway
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19/22. Acute airway obstruction following facial scalding: differential diagnosis between a thermal and infective cause.

    A 16-month-old boy received a 6 per cent hot water scald to his face and chest. The child had been suffering from an upper respiratory tract infection for 10 days prior to the injury. However, as the child rapidly developed respiratory tract obstruction, a differential diagnosis between acute infective epiglottitis and thermal injury to the hypopharynx was required. In fact, the hot water had reached the epiglottis and the aryepiglottic folds causing significant damage, whilst sparing the tongue and mouth. The child was admitted to the intensive care unit, intubated and ventilated for 4 1/2 days. The external burns eventually healed spontaneously. This case report demonstrates the rare occurrence of a minor scalding injury resulting in significant obstruction to the upper airway. Of additional interest is the presence of pre-existing symptoms of an upper respiratory tract infection and the total absence of any signs of intraoral burning. These additional factors demonstrate the necessity for absolute vigilance in the management of any scald in the region of a child's mouth. intubation can be life saving and should be considered in any case of scalding associated with increasing respiratory distress.
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ranking = 14.045080430507
keywords = airway obstruction, airway, obstruction
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20/22. Complications following butane inhalation and flash fire.

    Solvent inhalation is a well-documented form of drug abuse that can cause euphoria and hallucinations. Sudden death involving a volatile substance is most commonly caused by cardiac arrythmias, asphyxia, direct drug effects, and trauma. The victim in this paper suffered superficial partial thickness (12% total body surface area) burns from a flash fire that occurred when lighting a match after inhaling butane in an enclosed vehicle. The victim was admitted to the hospital for 2 days of observation but did not develop any respiratory symptoms under 2 days following her release. The victim died during her readmission, 9 days after the flash fire. Postmortem examination showed extensive epithelial injury from the upper airway and trachea to the terminal bronchioles, most likely due in part to both the initial inhalation injury and the resulting adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and staphylococcal infection. Many victims with superficial burn injuries may not seek medical attention owing to either embarrassment or fear of legal prosecution. Even those who do seek medical assistance may not reveal solvent abuse as the cause of their injuries. It is possible that delayed death may occur at home following volatile substance abuse but may remain unrecognized even with a thorough scene investigation.
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keywords = airway
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