Cases reported "Burns"

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1/210. Induction of a critical elevation of povidone-iodine absorption in the treatment of a burn patient: report of a case.

    A critical elevation of povidone-iodine absorption which occurred in a burn patient who was topically treated with 10% povidone-iodine (PI) gel is herein reported. A 65-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for deep second- and third-degree burns covering 26% of his total body surface area. The intravenous administration with lactated Ringer's solution and topical treatment with silver sulfadiazine were applied in addition to such treatments as debridement and skin grafting. However, wound infection occurred due to pseudomonas aeruginosa. Topical treatment with PI gel was effective for this condition. Persistent nodal bradycardia with hypotension, metabolic acidosis, and renal failure occurred 16 days after the start of PI gel treatment. Iodine toxicosis caused by PI gel was suspected with a serum iodine level of 20600 microg/dl (normal range 2-9 microg/dl). The PI gel treatment was therefore discontinued immediately, and hemodialysis was scheduled. However, the patient's family refused hemodialysis and he died 44 days after admission. To our knowledge, only eight patients with iodine toxicosis have been reported in burn patients treated with PI gel.
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2/210. Self-inflicted burn injuries: an 11-year retrospective study.

    The burns unit at the Royal Brisbane Hospital accepted a total of 2275 admissions from 1986 to 1996. During this 11-year period, 65 cases of self-inflicted burn injury were treated, which made up 2.9% of the total number of admissions. A mortality rate of 21.5% (14 patients) is noted, with all patients dying after admission to the hospital. A common feature of people that self-inflict burn injuries is a psychiatric history, with many patients having histories of self-harm or suicide attempts. Two distinct groups were identified--those with suicidal intent and those with intent of self-harm. Those patients with self-inflicted injuries have an increased mean of 31.4% total body surface area burned as compared with those patients whose injuries are accounted for as accidental, which have a mean total body surface area burned of 10%. Additionally, the mean length of stay in the hospital for patients with self-inflicted injuries was 40 days for acute injuries, which is prolonged; the mean length of stay for acute injuries that were not self-inflicted was 14 days. This investigation discovered 3 cases of repeated self-inflicted burn injury.
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3/210. Synchronous appearance of keratoacanthomas in burn scar and skin graft donor site shortly after injury.

    skin malignancies can originate in burn scars (Marjolin's ulcer). The most common is squamous cell carcinoma, usually appearing years after injury. Split-thickness skin graft donor sites as a source of malignant transformation are far less frequent and demonstrate a shorter interval between surgery and tumor onset. Keratoacanthomas have rarely been reported to arise in such scars. We describe the simultaneous occurrence of keratoacanthomas on a spontaneously healed second-degree burn on the flank and in the scar of a skin graft donor site on the thigh, 4 months after a 40% total body surface area burn.
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4/210. Concealed homicidal strangulation by burning.

    Compression of the neck, either with the hands or by a ligature, is not an uncommon method of homicide. Burning of the body to try to conceal the homicide may complicate the situation by making it difficult to interpret the findings. We hereby report two cases of homicidal ligature strangulation with extensive burning of the bodies. In both cases, external findings included the presence of a soft piece of fabric around the neck that, when removed, disclosed a portion of pale, unburned skin that vividly contrasted with surrounding areas. Osteocartilaginous lesions were present in only one case. carboxyhemoglobin levels in both cases were very low, and the histopathologic examination of distal airways for soot particles was negative.
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5/210. Complete fusion of the vocal cords; an unusual case.

    A case is presented of a woman who sustained a 35% body surface area mixed depth cutaneous burn, together with a significant inhalational injury. The patient required emergency resuscitation with endotracheal intubation and subsequently tracheostomy. This resulted in an unfortunate complication of a total adhesion between the vocal cords which extended into the subglottic area, causing complete occlusion of the airway.
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6/210. LD-IgG, IgA, IgM complex in a postburn patient.

    A 4-year-old Chinese boy was admitted to our hospital with burns over 25% of his body. He had an extremely high LD activity (1743 U/l). LD isoenzyme analysis showed an abnormal band cathodic to LD-5. It was demonstrated by counter immunoelectrophoresis that the extra band was a complex of LD with IgG, IgA and IgM. Because LD-Ig complex is extremely rare in patients with burns, the clinical significance of this substance in blood remains unclarified.
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7/210. The effective removal of proinflammatory cytokines by continuous hemofiltration with a polymethylmethacrylate membrane following severe burn injury: report of three cases.

    The serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines were investigated in three patients with severe burn injuries complicated by sepsis and pulmonary edema, who were treated with continuous hemofiltration (CHF) using a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) membrane. All patients had suffered burn injuries to more than 30% of their total body surface area (TBSA) and had burn indexes of 20 or more. Both interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were detectable in one patient, while the serum IL-6 levels were elevated in the remaining two patients. The serum cytokines decreased 24 h after the initiation of CHF. Determinations of IL-6 in inflow and outflow blood samples as well as in the filtration fluid revealed that IL-6 was ultrafiltrated and/or adsorbed by the filter. Two of the three patients did not survive. Nevertheless, the results of this study indicate that since burn injuries are frequently associated with hypercytokinemia, the removal of cytokines by CHF with a PMMA membrane may be effective in the management of severe burn injuries.
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8/210. Colonic perforation following prolonged hypovolaemia in a major burns injury.

    Perforation of the lower gastrointestinal tract is rare in burns patients. A 41-year-old male, who sustained 40% total body surface area burns and subsequently developed an acute abdomen on day 15 postburn, is presented. Emergency management included a subtotal colectomy and ileostomy formation performed to repair a perforated transverse colon found at laparotomy. The burns were debrided and grafted and the patient required cardiac, renal and respiratory support initially in the ITU setting before making a complete recovery. It is suggested that ischaemia caused the perforated transverse colon due to a prolonged low flow state. This was not detected until invasive cardiovascular catheterisation was performed and revealed a hypovolaemic state, which was corrected by fluids and noradrenaline. Both the previous cardiac history of the patient (Fallot's Tetralogy repair) and the noradrenaline may have exacerbated the low flow state within the mesenteric circulation leading to ultimate perforation. This case highlights the difficulties that may arise in resuscitating a patient who has previously had a cardiac defect repaired. Despite repair, abnormal physiology may persist resulting in misleading observations that produce undetected hypovolaemia with subsequent adverse events, as in this case. In such patients, early invasive cardiovascular monitoring should be considered.
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9/210. Severe gastrointestinal bleeding resulting in total gastrectomy in a patient with major burns--a case report.

    gastrointestinal hemorrhage is a known but rare complication of major burns. This case report describes the management of this potentially life threatening problem in a young adult with 45% body surface area burns who developed massive gastrointestinal-tract bleeding. The patient required a total gastrectomy that was complicated by a burst abdomen. Despite undergoing a series of major insults. the patient survived and was eventually discharged from hospital with an acceptable level of morbidity. The problems faced by the burn centre team and the issues involved in the decision making process are discussed in the management of this unusually devastating complication.
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10/210. Abdominal compartment syndrome in patients with burns.

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is a well-recognized perioperative complication that occurs in patients who undergo intra-abdominal operations and who require extensive fluid resuscitation. The classic presentation of this syndrome includes high peak airway pressures; oliguria, despite adequate filling pressures; and intra-abdominal pressures of more than 25 mm Hg. A decompressive laparotomy performed at the bedside can alleviate ACS. If left untreated, sustained intra-abdominal hypertension is often fatal. In the literature, ACS has been described in pediatric patients with burns but not in adult patients with burns. This article describes 3 adults who sustained burns of more than 70% of their body surface areas, who required more than 20 L of crystalloid resuscitation, and who developed ACS during their resuscitation after the burn injury. The mortality rate among these patients was 100%, which confirms the grave consequences of this syndrome. In our institution, intra-abdominal pressure is now routinely measured as part of the burn resuscitation process in an attempt to diagnose and treat this syndrome earlier and more efficaciously. It is recommended that the possibility of ACS be considered when diagnosing any patient with burns who develops high airway pressures, oliguria, or both.
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