Cases reported "Burns"

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1/1444. Nasal reconstruction in children: a review of 29 patients.

    Acquired large nasal defects are much more common in adulthood than in childhood because of the frequency of skin tumors after a certain age. However, from their experience in treating a number of children with sequelae of noma and burns, the authors have collected a series of 17 total and 12 partial nasal reconstructions in children aged 1 to 15 years. After reviewing the various methods used for recreating the lining, the support, and the skin cover in the whole series, three cases are reported in detail. A 1-year-old patient received a tempororetroauricular flap after total amputation of the nose and was observed for 17 years. Another patient, who was burned as a baby, underwent reconstruction at age 10 with a deltopectoral flap and was observed for 7 years. The third patient underwent total nose reconstruction at age 12 with an Indian forehead flap. From their experience, the authors conclude that, for psychosocial reasons, nasal reconstruction should be started early, despite possible reoperation at a later age. The best results are certainly obtained at the end of growth or at least after the age of 12. Adjacent bone or soft tissue defects further enhance the difficult challenge of restoring a satisfactory aesthetic appearance in these children. ( info)

2/1444. Induction of a critical elevation of povidone-iodine absorption in the treatment of a burn patient: report of a case.

    A critical elevation of povidone-iodine absorption which occurred in a burn patient who was topically treated with 10% povidone-iodine (PI) gel is herein reported. A 65-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for deep second- and third-degree burns covering 26% of his total body surface area. The intravenous administration with lactated Ringer's solution and topical treatment with silver sulfadiazine were applied in addition to such treatments as debridement and skin grafting. However, wound infection occurred due to pseudomonas aeruginosa. Topical treatment with PI gel was effective for this condition. Persistent nodal bradycardia with hypotension, metabolic acidosis, and renal failure occurred 16 days after the start of PI gel treatment. Iodine toxicosis caused by PI gel was suspected with a serum iodine level of 20600 microg/dl (normal range 2-9 microg/dl). The PI gel treatment was therefore discontinued immediately, and hemodialysis was scheduled. However, the patient's family refused hemodialysis and he died 44 days after admission. To our knowledge, only eight patients with iodine toxicosis have been reported in burn patients treated with PI gel. ( info)

3/1444. Reliability of inferior pedicle reduction mammaplasty in burned oversized breasts.

    Heavy pendulous breasts cause physical and psychological trauma. Postburn deformity of breasts results in significant asymmetry, displacement of nipple-areola complex, due to burn scar contracture, and significant scarring; these factors add more psychological discomfort and subsequent behavioral changes. The use of the inferior pedicle procedure in burned breasts can solve many problems. The technique reduces the size of the large breast, eliminates the scar tissue by excising both medial and lateral flaps, and brings the mal-located nipple and areola to a normal position. This study stresses the possibility of harvesting the inferior dermal pedicle flap from within the postburn scar tissue without necrosis of the nipple and areola, because of the excellent flap circulation. Acceptable aesthetic appearance and retainment of nipple viability and sensitivity can be achieved with the inferior pedicle technique even with postburn deformity of the breast. The study was conducted on 11 women, all of whom had sustained deep thermal burns to the breasts and anterior torso and whose breasts were hypertrophied and pendulous. ( info)

4/1444. child burn: accident, neglect or abuse. A case report.

    The authors report a case of a child who has suffered three episodes of burn injuries in a short period of time, probably provoked by neglect or abuse from the parents. This mode of injury is of great importance because of the high mortality, as well as the physical, psychological and social sequelae that it causes. The absence of care and attention from the parents or caretakers contribute to the high frequency of this kind of trauma. In these cases, the admission of the child to the hospital is justifiable, regardless of the size or depth of the burn wound. Aspects concerning the epidemiology are discussed in this article, as are comments based on the literature about infant abuse and neglect. ( info)

5/1444. Symptomatic tracheal stenosis in burns.

    tracheal stenosis in burns is rare and usually results from prolonged intubation or tracheostomy. inhalation injury itself has the potential risk of tracheal stenosis. We reviewed the records of 1878 burn patients during 1987 to 1995 and found seven with tracheal stenosis (0.37%) after an average of 4.4 years follow up. There were 4 males and 3 females with an average age of 27.3 years. The tracheal stenosis developed 1-22 months after burn (average 7 months). Five patients had their inhalation injury confirmed by bronchoscopic examination. The incidence of tracheal stenosis among inhalation injury patients was 5.49% (5/92). Six patients needed intubation in the initial stage either for respiratory distress or prophylaxis, with an average duration of 195.2 h. In addition to prolonged intubation, the presence of inhalation injury, repeated intubations and severe neck scar contractures are also contributors to tracheal stenosis in burns. We favor T-tube insertion as the first treatment choice; permanent tracheostomy was unsatisfactory in our study. ( info)

6/1444. Development of a colocutaneous fistula in a patient with a large surface area burn.

    A 61 year old female sustained a large surface area burn, complicated by inhalation injury. One month before the incident, she had undergone a left hemicolectomy with colorectal anastomosis for diverticular disease. Due to the severity of her burns, multiple surgical debridement and skin grafting procedures were required, including a large fascial debridement of her flank and back. Her hospital course was complicated by recurrent episodes of pulmonary and systemic infection, as well as pre-existing malnutrition. Prior to her discharge to a rehabilitation center, stool began to drain from her left posterior flank. This complication represented a colonic fistula arising from the recent colon anastomosis. The fistula was managed nonoperatively and gradually closed. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a colocutaneous fistula spontaneously draining from the abdomen via the retroperitoneum in a burn victim, not related to direct thermal injury to the peritoneal cavity. ( info)

7/1444. Treatment of a neck burn contracture with a super-thin occipito-cervico-dorsal flap: a case report.

    Postburn neck contractures still represent a surgical challenge due to their exposed location; and early operative treatment is necessary for both functional as well as aesthetic reasons. An excellent functional result was obtained by using a supercharged super-thin occipito-cervico-dorsal flap described by Hyakusoku to repair a large defect of the anterior neck following a very wide neck burn contracture release. In this case report, the technique and its advantages among the other reconstructive modalities are discussed briefly. ( info)

8/1444. methods for identification of 28 burn victims following a 1996 bus accident in spain.

    A car collided head-on with a bus containing 56 passengers plus the driver. A few seconds after the crash, the bus caught fire and 28 persons (15 male and 13 female) lost their lives. All the deceased were almost completely incinerated. To establish the identity of the victims, the judge in charge of the case designated a multidisciplinary Identification Commission. Postmortem procedures included a general external examination, routine photographs, dental examination, dental (intraoral and extraoral) and general radiographs (chest, ankle, etc.), and complementary biological methods for identification (e.g., dna analysis). The antemortem information, including dental and medical records available, were transcribed onto the INTERPOL disaster victim identification forms. The detailed ante- and postmortem information were compared manually. In this disaster dental identity could be established in 57% of the victims, whereas dental evidence did not allow by itself the identification of 12 burned victims. Odontological examination and complementary radiographic procedures were found to be accurate, economic and rapid methods of identifying badly burned victims in this bus accident. ( info)

9/1444. Patient-controlled analgesia in burn patients: a critical review of the literature and case report.

    Although patient-controlled analgesia has been well documented as effective in various types of patients, it has not been adequately studied in burn patients. In this paper, the authors review the literature on PCA in burn patients and present two cases. Flaws in most published studies make it difficult to determine the efficacy of PCA in burn patients. Both the literature and experience indicate that many patients with acute burns are not suitable candidates for PCA. The cases illustrate the different methods patients may use to achieve adequate analgesia with PCA. Both patients and nurses face a steep learning curve in using PCA for management of procedural pain in burn care. ( info)

10/1444. A silver-sulfadiazine-impregnated synthetic wound dressing composed of poly-L-leucine spongy matrix: an evaluation of clinical cases.

    The management of severe burns requires the suppression of bacterial growth, particularly when eschar and damaged tissue are present. For such cases, silver sulfadiazine (AgSD) cream has been traditionally applied. This antibacterial cream, however, cannot be used in conjunction with a temporary wound dressing that is needed to promote healing. The authors developed a synthetic wound dressing with drug delivery capability for clinical use by impregnating a poly-L-leucine spongy matrix with AgSD, which is released in a controlled, sustained fashion. In general, the dressing adhered firmly to the wound in the case of superficial second-degree burns, and during the healing process it separated spontaneously from the re-epithelialized surface. In the management of deep second-degree burns where eschar and damaged tissue were present, the dressing had to be changed at intervals of 3 to 5 days until it adhered firmly to the wound. Once the dressing had firmly attached to the wound, it was left in place until it separated spontaneously from the re-epithelialized surface. Dressing changes were fewer than with other treatments and the pain was effectively reduced. Cleansed wounds were effectively protected from bacterial contamination. Of 52 cases treated with this wound dressing, 93% (14/15) of superficial second-degree burns, 75% (3/4) of deep second-degree burns, 85% (6/7) of superficial and deep second-degree burns, and 75% (12/16) of split-thickness skin donor sites were evaluated as achieving good or excellent results. ( info)
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