Cases reported "Cachexia"

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1/83. Treatment of cachexia with recombinant growth hormone in a patient before lung transplantation: a case report.

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the effects of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) in a severely malnourished patient before lung transplantation. DESIGN: Case study. SETTING: intensive care unit. patients: A 38-yr-old severely malnourished (body mass index, 15.1 kg/m2) woman (receiving prednisone) with bronchiolitis obliterans evolving during 10 yrs presented with end-stage lung disease and required continuous noninvasive mechanical ventilation. INTERVENTIONS: Two courses of 35 days of 16 IU/day (0.42 IU/kg/day) rhGH administered subcutaneously, with an interruption of 5 wks between the two courses of rhGH. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: weight gain of 14.7% and 12.8% fat-free mass, as measured by 50-kHz bioelectrical impedance analysis, during treatment during a 3.5-month period. nitrogen excretion decreased from 23.7 g/day before treatment to 8.0 g/day while receiving rhGH. Improvement of pulmonary function was also noted and allowed discharge of the patient from the hospital after the second course of rhGH. She underwent successful lung transplantation 2 months later and reached 48.8 kg of body weight 6 months later. CONCLUSIONS: rhGH treatment is a possible strategy that could be used with malnourished patients who are awaiting lung transplantation to improve the nutritional status and respiratory muscle function to prevent recurring respiratory infection and postoperative complications favored by malnutrition and possibly to decrease the length of hospital stay. ( info)

2/83. Malignant large cell calcifying sertoli cell tumor of the testis (LCCSCTT). Report of a case in an elderly man and review of the literature.

    Malignant Large Cell Calcifying sertoli cell tumor of the testis (LCCSCTT) is a rare histological variant of sex cordstromal tumors. It usually arises in young males, sometimes is associated with endocrine abnormalities and has a benign course. It is exceptional in elderly men and the outcome is rarely fatal. We report a case of LCCSCTT in a 73 year-old man with fatal outcome. The tumor involved the right testis and several areas of the tunica albuginea were grossly invaded. Serum levels of HCG, LH and testosterone were normal. Lymphoangiography performed after orchiectomy showed an involvement of the iliac and preaortic lymph nodes. X-ray of the chest showed no lung metastases. A thorough study of the light microscopic, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural appearances was performed. immunohistochemistry revealed positivity to vimentin, S-100 and NSE. Our observations confirm the previous findings concerning malignant LCCSCTT and point out the histogenesis of the tumor from sertoli cells. ( info)

3/83. Intravenous immunoglobulins as treatment of life threatening esophageal involvement in polymyositis and dermatomyositis.

    Esophageal involvement is considered a major cause of morbidity and an indicator of poor prognosis in polymyositis (PM) and dermatomyositis (DM). We describe 3 patients with steroid resistant PM/DM with life threatening esophageal involvement, resulting in impossible oral feeding and enteral nutrition with a gastric tube. All patients had both dramatic and rapid improvement of all clinical manifestations after initiation of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy. Swallowing disorders completely disappeared after the second infusion of IVIG, which permitted normal oral feeding and ablation of the gastric tube. Our findings suggest IVIG should be considered the treatment of choice in such cases. ( info)

4/83. Diabetic neuropathic cachexia: the importance of positive recognition and early nutritional support.

    We report on a patient with acute painful diabetic neuropathy in whom abdominal pain and severe weight loss mimicked neoplastic disease. Positive recognition of the diabetic neuropathic cachexia syndrome might have avoided extensive invasive investigation. Intensive enteral nutritional support was associated with prompt resolution. ( info)

5/83. Growth hormone for optimization of refractory heart failure treatment.

    It has been reported that growth hormone may benefit selected patients with congestive heart failure. A 63-year-old man with refractory congestive heart failure waiting for heart transplantation, depending on intravenous drugs (dobutamine) and presenting with progressive worsening of the clinical status and cachexia, despite standard treatment, received growth hormone replacement (8 units per day) for optimization of congestive heart failure management. Increase in both serum growth hormone levels (from 0.3 to 0.8 microg/l) and serum IGF-1 levels (from 130 to 300ng/ml) was noted, in association with clinical status improvement, better optimization of heart failure treatment and discontinuation of dobutamine infusion. Left ventricular ejection fraction (by MUGA) increased from 13 % to 18 % and to 28 % later, in association with reduction of pulmonary pressures and increase in exercise capacity (rise in peak VO2 to 13.4 and to 16.2ml/kg/min later). The patient was "de-listed" for heart transplantation. Growth hormone may benefit selected patients with refractory heart failure. ( info)

6/83. Nasogastric hyperalimentation through a polyethylene catheter: an alternative to central venous hyperalimentation.

    We performed nasogastric hyperalimentation with polyethylene catheters and appropriate feeding solutions in 12 cachectic patients who had been referred as candidates for central venous hyperalimentation. Most patients had primary gastrointestinal disease. The duration of hyperalimentation averaged 31 days. Seven patients obtained rapid weight gain (average 0.3 kg/day) with the nasogastric hyperalimentation alone. An additional two were successfully repleted with the addition of parenteral fluids via peripheral veins. In the nine repleted patients, serum albumin rose by average 19%, 24-hr urine creatinine by average 21%, and triceps skinfold by average 46%. The nature of the weight gain in the nine successful cases was analyzed by the metabolic balance study technique. Average composition of the increment in weight was: 50% protoplasm, 48% extracellular fluid, 19% adipose tissue, and less than 1% bone. We conclude that nasogastric hyperalimentation can replace central venous hyperalimentation in a substantial proportion of patients now receiving the latter type of treatment. ( info)

7/83. Progressive esophageal leiomyomatosis with respiratory compromise.

    leiomyomatosis is a rare neoplastic condition of the pediatric esophagus. Presenting symptoms usually overlap with more common esophageal disorders, namely, gastroesophageal reflux. A patient is presented in whom leiomyomatosis progressed to the point of causing cachexia and respiratory compromise. ( info)

8/83. hypothermia with acute renal failure in a patient suffering from diabetic nephropathy and malnutrition.

    We report a rare case of hypothermia with acute renal failure in a patient suffering from diabetic nephropathy. A 71-year-old male who had been receiving insulin therapy for the treatment of diabetes mellitus complicated with advanced diabetic nephropathy since 1998 was malnourished with an extremely decreased muscle mass. Without any prolonged exposure to excessively low external temperatures or hypothyroidism, pituitary insufficiency, adrenal insufficiency, sepsis, hypoglycemia, and diabetic ketoacidosis, acute hypothermia appeared together with an aggravation of diabetic nephropathy. His skin temperature fell to below measurable levels and his rectal temperature fell to 30.0 degrees C. His consciousness was drowsy and the hypothermia was not accompanied by shivering. Skeletal muscle is known to play an important role as a center of heat production and shivering thermogenesis in skeletal muscle mainly operates on acute cold stress. Therefore, in this case, hypothermia may have occurred because the shivering thermogenesis could not fully act on the acute cold stress due to the dramatically reduced muscle mass. We should always keep in mind that older, malnourished diabetic patients can easily suffer from impairments of the thermoregulatory system. ( info)

9/83. Antrochoanal polyp presenting with obstructive sleep apnoea and cachexia.

    A rare presentation of an antrochoanal polyp is reported. A 14-year-old boy presented with obstructive sleep apnoea and subnormal growth velocity for height and weight over a 1-year period. Examination revealed a post-nasal mass which following removal was confirmed histopathologically as an antrochoanal polyp. Relief of the airway obstruction was promptly followed by catch-up growth and subsequent normal growth velocities. The possible mechanisms underlying the cachexia are explored including the possible association with the obstructive sleep apnoea. ( info)

10/83. Shwachman-diamond syndrome in a Mexican family.

    Shwachman-diamond syndrome (SDS) is an inherited condition with multisystemic abnormalities including pancreatic exocrine dysfunction, neutropenia, short stature, and skeletal abnormalities. In this report, we describe the case of a 14-year-old female with a history of neutropenia, pancreatic exocrine insufficiency and pancreatic endocrine sufficiency, pancreatic lipomatosis (10), and the development of myeloid leukemia. Postmortem examination revealed a high probability of SDS. We also describe the clinical findings in the patient's six siblings, suggesting this as a familial form of SDS. Because the gene(s) responsible for this syndrome have not yet been identified, genetic confirmation is not yet possible. This is the first report in the literature of a Mexican family with probable SDS. ( info)
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