Cases reported "Cadaver"

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1/97. cyclosporine disposition and long-term renal function in a 500-pound kidney transplant recipient.

    Patient size has been suggested as a risk factor in kidney transplantation. We have followed a recipient of a cadaver kidney who became massively obese (232 kg, 511 lbs) 5 years posttransplantation. He has maintained stable renal function with no rejection episodes and at 5 years has a measured serum creatinine of 2.2 mg/dL, creatinine clearance 42 mL/min, and urinary protein excretion of 320 mg/24h. Both oral and intravenous cyclosporine (Sandimmune) pharmacokinetic studies were done on a steady-state dose of 150 mg, which represents 0.65 mg/kg per dose. The patient exhibited very high bioavailability, F = 95%, and an oral elimination T1/2 of over 21 hours. These data confirm that stable cyclosporine delivery in very obese recipients can be sustained by dosing normalized to the ideal body weight and trough level monitoring.
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2/97. Diffuse glomerular basement membrane lamellation in renal allografts from pediatric donors to adult recipients.

    The transplantation of kidneys from pediatric cadaveric donors into adult recipients is performed in many centers. However, some studies indicate that the outcome of such renal transplants may be inferior compared with that of adult donors, particularly if the donor is an infant. Morphologic studies of failed pediatric donor kidneys in adult recipients describe various degrees of segmental or global glomerular sclerosis. The authors have performed ultrastructural examinations on such transplants and have identified six cases with diffuse irregular lamellation of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), a change that may develop as early as 10 weeks after transplantation. The age of all donors was < or =6 years; three were infants. The incidence of the lesion was 9% at our institution in renal transplant patients who received a graft from donors <10 years old. Diffuse GBM lamellation has not been found in renal transplants from adult donors. light microscopy showed various degrees of diffuse mesangial expansion, usually with segmental glomerular sclerosis. The patients had severe proteinuria. While recurrent focal segmental glomerular sclerosis (FSGS) has to be excluded, such diffuse GBM lamellation is generally not seen in recurrent FSGS cases. The pathogenesis of the lesion is most likely related to hyperperfusion injury of small pediatric donor kidneys grafted into adult recipients.
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3/97. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis: a need for caution in live-related renal transplantation.

    Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) has increasingly been recognized to occur in a familial pattern. We have observed the development of biopsy-confirmed FSGS and subsequent end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in one live related kidney donor and ESRD without biopsy in another. Both donors had family members with ESRD secondary to FSGS. Both donors were apparently healthy by routine physical examination, urinalysis, and serum creatinine at the time of evaluation as live related donors. We believe these cases emphasize the need for great caution when evaluating siblings as potential live related donors.
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4/97. Successful transplantation of a cadaveric kidney with post-infectious glomerulonephritis.

    This report describes a successful renal Tx in a patient with chronic renal failure, caused by dysplastic kidneys, who received a cadaveric kidney with post-infectious glomerulonephritis. Sequential renal biopsies were performed at 12 h before Tx, and at 1 h and on days 8 and 58 post-Tx. Post-operative hematuria disappeared on day 9 and proteinuria on day 13. Normal graft function was observed within 1 month, with histologic resolution. Our study suggests that while the donor kidney facilitates deposition of certain immune reactants, this is a host (environmental) problem and when transplanted into a new host (new environment), the problem is no longer sustained.
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5/97. Case study of paired cadaver renal allografts from the same donor: influence of local DIC kidney and concomitant acute rejection on early graft outcome.

    We report the clinical course of 2 recipients whose renal allografts were obtained from the same cadaver donor after cardiac arrest. The recipients showed different outcomes after transplantation. Graft biopsy after reperfusion revealed disseminated intravascular coagulation (so-called DIC kidney) and severe acute tubular necrosis (ATN) in both recipients. While one graft showed primary nonfunction, the other graft became functional after a post-operative anuric period. Serial graft biopsies performed during the oligo-anuric period revealed recovery of ATN and no intra-glomerular fibrin thrombi, but development of acute rejection was detected in both recipients. The left kidney graft showed more severe local DIC kidney than the right kidney, as well as more severe acute rejection in the oligo-anuric period. Despite aggressive anti-rejection therapy, the left kidney graft showed primary nonfunction. Therefore, severe acute rejection leading to primary nonfunction might have been related to more severe ischemic injury and more extensive local DIC kidney in the left kidney.
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6/97. Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (ATTR Ser50Ile): the first autopsy case report.

    We report an autopsy case of a pedigree of familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) with a mutation of isoleucine-50 transthyretin (ATTR Ser50Ile). A 47-year-old man started developing severe diarrhea and weight loss at age 41 years, followed by urinary incontinence, autonomic-nervous-system abnormalities and serious heart failure; the diagnosis of FAP (ATTR Ser50Ile) was made on the basis of genetic, histochemical and immunohistochemical analysis. Six years after the initial symptoms, he died of septic shock. autopsy revealed suppurative peritonitis, perforation of the sigmoid colon and marked systemic amyloid deposition. The total amount of amyloid deposited in the heart was greatly increased and was much lower in the thyroid gland and kidneys compared with amyloid deposits in ordinary FAP (ATTR Val30Met). amyloid deposition in peripheral vessel walls was prominent, particularly in lymphatics and veins. His elder sister, 54 years old, started to develop orthostatic hypotension at age 49 years, followed by dysesthesia, diarrhea and severe congestive heart failure. Endomyocardial biopsy revealed severe TTR-amyloid deposition; ultrastructural examination demonstrated that amyloid fibrils were deposited disproportionately and extended radially around microvessels.
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7/97. Identification of the origin of a vesical mass occurring after cadaveric renal transplantation using short tandem repeat markers.

    We report a case of polypoid cystitis in a 54-year-old female occurring 4 years after cadaveric kidney transplantation. Endoscopic exploration revealed a polypoid tumor near the stoma opened for the transplanted ureter. The diagnosis of polypoid cystitis was confirmed histopathologically. Genotyping of cells from the tumor with polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR) and amelogenin loci revealed that the tumor contained alleles from both the donor and recipient. Molecular genetic analysis provided strong evidence that the tumor cells arose from the donor tissue.
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8/97. Granulomatous tubulointerstitial nephritis in the renal allograft.

    Granulomatous tubulointerstitial nephritis has rarely been described in renal allografts. Of 1,574 renal allograft tissue specimens obtained from 514 patients in the period 1993 to 1998, we report three cases (0.6%) with interstitial nephritis containing multiple noncaseating granulomas. biopsy specimen 1 was obtained from a 44-year-old woman with a 6-day history of systemic candida albicans infection and showed multiple granulomas containing budding yeasts. biopsy specimen 2 was from a 33-year-old man who presented with miliary spread of mycobacterium tuberculosis 12 days before the allograft biopsy. biopsy specimen 3 was from a 23-year-old woman who presented with escherichia coli urinary infection and bacteremia that was treated with antibiotics for 10 days before the biopsy. Granulomatous inflammation in reponse to infectious agents or drugs in immunosuppressed kidney transplant recipients can rarely give rise to allograft interstitial nephritis that is distinct from acute rejection. To our knowledge, there are no prior reports of granulomatous tubulointerstitial nephritis associated with C albicans and E coli infection or antibiotic therapy in human renal allografts.
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9/97. Renal cystic disease associated with tuberous sclerosis complex: renal failure treated by cadaveric kidney transplantation.

    Chronic renal failure in patients with tuberous sclerosis may be secondary to diffuse cystic disease, a lesion less common than the better known hamartomatous angiomyolipomas. uremia, in the case of a nineteen-year old female with end-stage renal disease, was associated with severely atrophic kidneys that contained numerous collapsed and scarred cysts. No hamartomas were present. The patient survived for more than three years following cadaveric renal transplantation.
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10/97. Aortocoronary vein graft surgery in a cadaver kidney transplant recipient.

    A case of Prinzmetal angina occurred in a recipient of a cadaver kidney transplant who was treated with aortocoronary vein graft. The patient had severe retrosternal chest pain associated with ST-segment elevation in the precordial leads. Coronary arteriograms disclosed two major lesions in the proximal anterior descending artery. Aortocoronary vein graft was successfully performed with no untoward effect on the renal status. The patient has been free of angina approximately two years postoperatively.
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