Cases reported "Cadaver"

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1/12. Distal disinsertion of the patellar ligament combined with avulsion fractures at the medial and lateral margins of the patella. A case report and an experimental study.

    A 12-year-old boy presented with a proximally retracted patella 5 months after an injury to the left knee. The clinical and radiographic features and the findings at operation led to the conclusion that the original lesion had been a distal disinsertion of the patellar ligament combined with avulsion fractures at the medial and lateral margins of the patella, produced by the medial and lateral longitudinal patellar retinacula. Loading experiments on amputation and cadaver specimens showed that these retinacula, apart from being tendons for the vastus medialis and the vastus lateralis, respectively, constitute a direct fibrous connection of considerable strength between the patella and the tibia and thus are capable of producing avulsion fractures.
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ranking = 1
keywords = tibia
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2/12. Intraoperative imaging of the tibial plafond fracture: a potential pitfall.

    STUDY DESIGN: Human tibial plafond cadaveric specimens were coronally sectioned and imaged to assess the accuracy of evaluation of ankle joint line congruity using anteroposterior radiography. Two interesting representative clinical cases are discussed. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the validity of the routine use of anteroposterior radiographs to evaluate intra-operative ankle joint line congruity in circumstances where lateral radiographs are infeasible due to obscuring internal or external hardware. methods: Eleven frozen human cadaveric lower extremity specimens were used in this study. At the level of the tibial plafond, the specimens were sequentially sliced into 0.5cm sections in the coronal plane. True anteroposterior radiographs were taken with the specimen en bloc. Sequentially, the posterior slices were removed one by one, with an image taken after removing each section. The process was then repeated by removing the anterior sections sequentially with intervening radiographs. Each series of anteroposterior radiographs was then evaluated to characterize which portion of the joint line on the whole specimen view had been contributed by each of the sections. This then allowed us to make inferences about the evaluation of the joint line if it had been derived solely by anteroposterior radiography. Two poignant clinical cases demonstrating the clinical relevance of this information are discussed. RESULTS: By sequentially imaging after removing coronal sections of the tibial plafond we were able to accurately characterize the contribution of each portion of the plafond to the overall anteroposterior view. By primarily imaging the anterior portions of the plafond, with the posterior portions removed, the joint line image was virtually unchanged from the en bloc anteroposterior radiograph. However, removal of the anterior coronal sections caused large variation in the joint line image. These observations demonstrate that the anteroposterior radiograph of the tibial plafond characterizes the anterior portion of the joint well, while it represents a poor assessment of the posterior portion of the joint. This was well illustrated in our clinical case presentations. CONCLUSION: In severe fractures of the tibial plafond multiple forms of internal and external devices are frequently used for fixation. In these circumstances hardware may obscure the lateral view making it impossible to obtain adequate lateral radiographs to assess fracture reduction and joint line congruity. In this scenario, the anteroposterior radiograph is frequently relied upon to confirm the anatomic relationship of the displaced fragments. However, this view fails to accurately characterize reduction in the entire joint line and, intra-operatively, may mislead the surgeon to accept a reduction as anatomic when intra-articular incongruity still exists. Strict attention to pre-operative radiographs and the use of additional rotated views may aid the surgeon in this setting to assess fracture reduction and joint line congruence.
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ranking = 9
keywords = tibia
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3/12. Microsurgical treatment of lumbosacral plexus injuries.

    Surgical treatment of lumbar and sacral plexus lesions is very rarely reported in the literature. The incidence of the involvement of these nervous structures in traumatic lesions of different etiology is probably much higher than believed, and surgical treatment should be taken into consideration more often. In this paper the experience derived from the surgical treatment of 15 cases is reported. Different surgical approaches have been employed according to ethiology, to level of nerve lesion and concomitant lesions of other organs. patients who suffered a lesion in the lumbar or sacral plexus may have a very severe problem with deambulation since the leg may not be stable or may be unable to withstand the weight of the body. pain syndrome in these patients may be a very severe obstacle to rehabilitation programs and to deambulation and everyday activity. Microsurgical nerve treatment in the retroperitoneal space is demanding both for the surgeon and for the patient but neurolysis and grafting procedures are possible also in this area. The resulting improvement of motor performance and the relief of pain are strong arguments in favor of this choice. muscles benefitting most from surgery are the gluteal and femural muscles; more distant muscles, and particularly the anterior tibial nerve dependent muscles will gain minimal benefit from surgery. The relief from pain is relevant in all cases.
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ranking = 1
keywords = tibia
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4/12. The distally pedicled peroneus brevis muscle flap anatomic studies and clinical applications.

    Defects in the distal third of the lower leg with bone or tendon exposure may require local or free flap reconstruction. For small and moderate lesions, the distally pedicled peroneus brevis muscle flap may be an effective procedure with less morbidity than a free tissue transfer. Six cadaveric specimens were dissected to determine the location of distal pedicles and the flap type. This flap was found to be a Type IV flap, and the location of distal pedicle was always located within 6 cm from the fibula tip. This flap was performed on 6 patients to cover defects in the distal third of the lower leg. The defect areas were the pretibial region in 2 cases, the lateral malleolus in 3 cases, and the achilles tendon in 1 case. The peroneus brevis muscle was detached from the uppermost point of the fibula to obtain enough length to cover the defect. All flaps survived except 1 that experienced distal flap necrosis. Minor complications included skin graft failure in 2 cases. However, the final results demonstrated a smooth contour that eliminated dead space. Limited donor site morbidity was obtained in all cases. The distally peroneus brevis muscle flap therefore offers an alternative for reconstructive surgeons dealing with soft tissue defects of the lower leg.
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ranking = 1
keywords = tibia
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5/12. rupture of the anterior tibial tendon: three clinical cases, anatomical study, and literature review.

    BACKGROUND: We report three cases of anterior tibial tendon ruptures and the results of an anatomical study in regard to the tendon's insertion site and a literature review. methods: Three patients were referred to our hospital with anterior tibial tendon ruptures. In the anatomical study, 53 feet were dissected, looking in particular for variants of the bony insertion of the tendon. RESULTS: Two patients had surgical treatment (one primary repair and one semimembranosus tendon graft) and one conservative treatment. After a mean followup of 14 weeks all patients had satisfactory outcomes. In the anatomical study, we noted three different insertion sites: in 36 feet the tendon inserted into the medial side of the cuneiform and the base of the first metatarsal bone and in 13 feet only into the medial side of the cuneiform bone. In the remaining four feet the tendon inserted into the cuneiform and the first metatarsal bone, but an additional tendon was noted taking its origin from the anterior tibial tendon near its insertion into the medial cuneiform and attaching to the proximal part of the first metatarsal. CONCLUSIONS: According to literature, surgical repair is the treatment of choice for acute ruptures and for patients with high activity levels. For chronic ruptures and patients with low demands, conservative management may lead to an equally good outcome. knowledge of the anatomy in this region may be helpful for diagnosis and for the interpretation of intraoperative findings and choosing the most appropriate surgical procedure.
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ranking = 7
keywords = tibia
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6/12. Freshly harvested cadaveric venous homografts as arterial conduits in infected fields.

    Six patients with patent multilevel prosthetic grafts (three axillofemoral-femoral grafts, an aortobifemoral graft, an axillofemoral and femoral-anterior tibial graft, and an axillofemoral and femoral-popliteal graft) that demonstrated overt infection involving both the proximal inflow (one infrarenal aorta, five axillary arteries) and groin anastomoses required complete graft excision. Cadaveric inferior vena cava, common and external iliac, common and superficial femoral, and greater saphenous veins were harvested in conjunction with multiple organ donor procedures. Identical anatomic reconstruction within the infected fields was accomplished, with patency and distal perfusion maintained for intervals sufficient to achieve complete resolution of infection in all cases. This interval of revascularization with a venous homograft has served as a temporizing maneuver, which permitted eradication of infection and allowed subsequent reimplantation of prosthetic graft material without associated reinfection in the two instances in which it was required. Use of freshly harvested large-caliber caval, iliac, and femoral homograft veins as arterial substitutes in infected fields has not been previously reported. Case histories and a review of the venous homografting literature are included.
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ranking = 1
keywords = tibia
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7/12. External longitudinal splitting of the tibialis anterior muscle for coverage of compound fractures of the middle third of the tibia.

    In this modern era, compound fractures of the middle third of the tibia are relatively common. With the advent of external fixation, these fractures can be more rapidly and effectively dealt with, and attention can be directed to immediate coverage of the exposed bone. External longitudinal splitting of the anterior tibialis muscle offers a convenient and safe method for converting the open fracture to a closed one. The uniqueness of the tibialis anterior muscle is two-fold. It is circumpennate, and it has an internal axial tendon corresponding to almost its total length. Both these features impart to it considerable strength, and the muscle splitting herewith described does not appear to impair its function. Five treated limbs, each with loss of soft tissues overlying compound mid-third tibial fractures, are presented. Rapid healing and virtual absence of bone infection was observed in all cases.
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ranking = 12
keywords = tibia
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8/12. The latissimus dorsi/scapular bone flap (the "latissimus/bone flap").

    During the past 4 years, our trauma and reconstructive service has treated a number of patients with lower extremity trauma involving the loss of both soft tissue and significant segments of tibia. While there are many methods for reconstruction of such defects, we became interested in providing a one-stage reconstruction of both the soft tissues and the missing bone segments. Since our standard flap for lower extremity reconstruction is a latissimus dorsi flap, we became interested in transferring a portion of the lateral border of the scapula along with the latissimus muscle. We dissected 34 cadaver scapulas in order to verify the reliability of the blood supply to the lateral border of the scapula based on the thoracodorsal artery. We then performed 12 "latissimus/bone flaps" from 1988 to 1992. Prior to flap transfer, control of the wound was obtained with surgical debridement and aggressive wound management. The flap usually was performed 5 to 7 days after initial contact with the patient. The muscle was skin grafted. All patients reported are ambulating, with x-ray evidence of bony incorporation of the transferred bone segment into the tibia. We feel that inclusion of the lateral scapula bone with the latissimus dorsi is a useful adjunct in the management of lower extremity trauma.
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ranking = 2
keywords = tibia
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9/12. Anatomic basis of local muscle flaps in the distal third of the leg.

    Soft-tissue defects of the distal third of the tibia are considered to be the realm of free-tissue transfer. We have found clinically that several local muscles can be used reliably in this area. The purposes of this study were: (1) to evaluate the potential use of the local muscles for soft-tissue coverage in the lower third of the leg and (2) to obtain numerical data that could be used preoperatively in the selection of potential local muscle flaps. All potential muscles, excluding the gastrocnemius, plantaris, and popliteus, from 10 fresh frozen legs were examined and the following details recorded: (1) the distance above the medial malleolus that the muscle bellies ended (musculotendinous junction), (2) the distance between the medial malleolus and the distal end of the transposed flaps (reach), (3) the area of tibia that could be covered, and (4) the vascular supply to these muscles. The soleus, extensor digitorum longus and peroneus tertius, extensor hallucis longus, peroneus brevis, and flexor digitorum longus were found to be the most anatomically suited muscles for local transposition to selected lower-third defects. We have worked with these muscles clinically and have found them to be useful and reliable when chosen appropriately.
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ranking = 2
keywords = tibia
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10/12. femur lengthening with a vascularized tibia bone flap.

    A vascularized tibial bone flap based on a single nutrient vessel has been previously proposed for use in long-bone reconstruction. While the routine use of the tibia for donor bone tissue is precluded by its essential weight-bearing function, in select cases it provides a useful alternative to standard donor bone sources. cadaver dissection was performed to confirm the endosteal and periosteal vascular anatomy of the tibia. The presence of a consistent nutrient vessel was confirmed. Selective dye injection demonstrated a dual cortical blood supply based on both the endosteal nutrient vessel and multiple periosteal perforator vessels. Inclusion of both vascular supplies maximizes perfusion of bone and periosteum, thus potentially optimizing bone healing and osseous union. Based on these findings, the vascularized tibial bone flap was applied to a clinical case. A 45-year-old male veteran sustained a right proximal femur fracture in a motor vehicle accident. Multiple attempts at fusion with open reduction, internal fixation, grafting, and nonvascularized fibular onlay strut with cerclage wires were all unsuccessful. The patient presented with a chronic right femur nonunion with painful pseudoarthrosis; frozen knee joint; and an internally rotated, 20.3-cm shortened, nonfunctional lower limb. femur length proximal to the nonunion was less than 15 cm. A maximum amputation stump length is recommended for optimal prosthetic function. A 15-cm pedicled tibial bone flap based on the posterior tibial endosteal and periosteal vascular supply was reversed and plated to the proximal femur to provide a stump of adequate length to optimize prosthetic fitting and function. The tibia is essential for normal weight-bearing, but in select cases may be sacrificed for use in long-bone reconstruction. Expanded use of tibial vascularized allografts in long-bone reconstruction may be made possible following future development of effective and safe immunosuppressive therapy. Transfer based on the posterior tibial pedicle, which includes the endosteal nutrient vessel as well as the periosteal supply via the tibialis posterior muscle, maximizes bone perfusion. The pedicle is of sufficient length to be used for positioning the tibia in the thigh or for free transfer to distant sites.
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ranking = 15
keywords = tibia
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