Cases reported "Calculi"

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1/14. Hepatic subcapsular hematoma after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) for pancreatic stones.

    We present a patient with complication of huge hepatic subcapsular hematoma after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) for pancreatic lithotripsy. The hematoma measured 78-110mm. angiography showed a subcapsular hematoma, rather than a hematoma in the liver. In the arterial phase, the distal end of the small vessel showed spotty opacification similar to microaneurysma, suggesting that it was an injury caused by separation of the liver and its capsule, caused by the shock waves. The portal vein and hepatic vein were normal. After 8 weeks of conservative therapy, the hematoma was gradually absorbed and the patient was discharged. Eight months after the accident, the hematoma had decreased to 40mm in size. After 20 months, it was completely absorbed. The reported rate of renal subcapsular hematoma after ESWL for renal or ureter stones is 0.1%-0.7%. To date, however, only five cases of hepatic subcapsular hematoma after right renal stone disintegration have been reported. This is the first report of hepatic subcapsular hematoma after ESWL for pancreatic stones.
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2/14. Endoscopic pancreatic sphincter balloon dilation for effective retrieval of pancreatic duct stone.

    To facilitate pancreatic stone retrieval, four patients with chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic stones underwent endoscopic pancreatic sphincter balloon dilation (EPSBD) rather than pancreatic sphincterotomy. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy combined with endoscopic removal was carried out in three patients. Stone removal following EPSBD was completely successful in all four patients. patients showed no severe complications during the dilation procedure. In one patient, to prevent pancreatitis, an endoscopic nasopancreatic drain was placed for 1 week after EPSBD. Compared with pancreatic sphincterotomy, EPSBD can be performed safely in patients with chronic pancreatitis to assist in the extraction of pancreatic duct stones. Use of the EPSBD procedure in cases of chronic pancreatitis provides a useful approach to improve endoscopic clearance of pancreatic duct stones.
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3/14. splenic rupture following ESWL for a pancreatic duct calculus.

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is an established and extensively used treatment alternative for urinary calculi. It is also an established method of dealing with pancreatic duct calculi complementing endoscopic techniques in selected cases. Three reports of splenic injury following and probably caused by ESWL for urinary calculi have previously been published. We report a case of splenic rupture presenting with life-threatening hemorrhage 6 days after a single ESWL therapy session for pancreatic duct calculi.
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4/14. Effective extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for pancreatic duct stone.

    A 55-year-old man with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis was hospitalized for further treatment of intractable repeated upper abdominal pain. A laboratory data showed normal hepatobiliary enzymes and glucose tolerance test, but abnormal pancreatic enzymes including amylase, lipase, trypsin and elastase I. Pancreatic function diagnostant test was 71%. Abdominal ultrasound examination and computed tomography showed an approximately 4 mm main pancreatic duct stone and multiple small stones in the surrounding parenchyma, and the findings being compatible with chronic pancreatitis. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatrography revealed that there was a main pancreatic duct stone in the pancreas head, and that the caudal pancreatic duct could not be visualized due to the impacted stone. In addition, intrapancreatic bile duct showed no malignant irregularity, but pancreatitis-induced smooth narrowing. The patient underwent extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) alone, because endoscopic manipulation for pancreatic stone removal was impossible due to tightly impacted stone with stenosis. Successful ESWL was achieved with the stone disappearance and without any complication.
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5/14. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy of pancreatic duct stones.

    Encouraging results with extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) for pancreatic duct stones have been reported from europe. We present our experience with the first two North American patients, treated with excellent results in one and limited clinical improvement in the other patient at 1 year follow-up. Targeting of pancreatic duct stones was achieved with either fluoroscopy or ultrasound.
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6/14. Infrared spectrophotometry of intraluminal meconium calculi in a neonate with imperforate anus and rectourethral fistula.

    BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Intraluminal meconium calculi are a rare cause of neonatal abdominal calcifications in patients with anorectal malformations. To investigate their pathogenesis, we performed infrared spectroscopic analysis of meconium-calcified lesions. methods: meconium calculi were collected from the colostomy in a newborn patient with imperforate anus and rectourethral fistula. The potassium bromide method was employed to obtain the infrared absorption spectrum of the meconium calculi. RESULTS: The wavelength pattern of the meconium calculi exhibited 4 specific peaks at 1570, 1390, 1105, and 1005 cm(-1) between 22% and 45% transmittance values. The unique absorption spectrum exclusively indicated ammonium hydrogen urate (C(5)N(5)O(3)H(7)), having the combined constituents of ammonium and uric acid. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the intraluminal meconium calculi were originally derived from meconium and fetal urine. The stasis of meconium passage and fetal urine mixing through the rectourethral fistula in a low-pH condition was deduced to be the main cause of this rare stone formation.
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7/14. Endoscopic treatment of an impacted pancreatic duct stone using a balloon catheter for electrohydraulic lithotripsy without pancreatoscopy.

    Obstructing main pancreatic duct (PD) stones represent a challenge for endoscopic removal because they are frequently impacted within the duct, are hard, and process sharp edges. Multiple series have been published demonstrating that removal of obstructing stones in the main PD can improve symptoms in the majority of patients with chronic pancreatitis. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has become an accepted technique to facilitate stone clearance when standard endoscopic methods fail. More recently, direct contact lithotripsy with the use of smaller caliber endoscopes has been described as an alternative to ESWL. Limited experience suggests that intraductal electrohydraulic lithotripsy under direct endoscopic visualization with a small caliber pancreatoscope results in successful fragmentation of PD stones that have been refractory to standard endoscopic methods or ESWL. Herein, we report the use of intraductal electrohydraulic lithotripsy to fragment a large obstructing PD stone guided only by fluoroscopy without the utilization of a pancreatoscope.
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8/14. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of pancreatic duct stones.

    Chronic calcifying pancreatitis presents a major clinical problem, often requiring extensive surgery. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) offers a new therapeutic option. We applied ESWL after endoscopic sphincterotomy of the pancreatic orifice in eight patients with impacted pancreatic duct stones. An electromagnetic lithotriptor (Siemens Lithostar, Erlangen, FRG) was used. patients were treated in prone position under fluoroscopic control. A mean of 6,813 shock waves (range 1,500-10,000) was delivered in one or two sessions. Disintegration of stones was achieved in 6/8 patients, initial relief of pain in 7/8 patients, and total clearance of the pancreatic duct in 3/8 patients. One patient had an exacerbation of her pancreatitis one day after ESWL, which resolved rapidly with medical treatment. No other complications were observed. Four of five patients with fragmented stones had no abdominal complaints at follow-up (mean 17 months, range 3-27). Three patients in whom ESWL was not completely successful (two without and one with partial fragmentation) underwent an operation according to Puestow. Two of them still have abdominal complaints after surgery. From these data, we conclude that ESWL of pancreatic duct stones is a promising new alternative for surgery, when endoscopic stone extraction fails.
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9/14. Extracorporeal piezoelectric shockwave lithotripsy of multiple pancreatic duct stones under ultrasonographic control.

    The first ultrasonographically controlled fragmentation of multiple pancreatic duct stones of up to 14 mm size by means of extracorporeal, piezoelectric shockwave lithotripsy is reported. On account of the ultrasound localization and continuous control during therapy a nasopancreatic tube for instillation of contrast medium and frequent x-ray checks were not necessary. The 48-year-old patient did not experience any pain during the four treatment sessions and during the follow-up period. No complications were noted.
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10/14. Extracorporeal shock wave lithrotripsy of intrahepatic stones. Case presentation and review of the literature.

    Primary hepatolithiasis, although rare, is a difficult condition requiring the combined management of radiology and surgery. Use of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and percutaneous stone extraction, along with improved biliary drainage by choledochojejunostomy, should provide a safe effective approach to this unusual problem.
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