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1/64. Deflazacort treatment in progressive diaphyseal dysplasia (Camurati-Engelmann disease).

    Progressive diaphyseal dysplasia (PDD), a rare disorder of bones, in recent years has been accepted as a systemic disease within the spectrum of connective tissue disorders associated with immunological abnormalities. steroids have been used in the treatment of PDD with variable success. In this report PDD is described in a 5-year-old boy who presented with leg pain, fatigue, headache and anorexia with an onset in infancy. physical examination revealed a waddling gait, thorax deformity and thickening in the upper extremities. The diagnosis was made by radiologic demonstration of cortical thickening and a narrowed medullary cavity of the long bones of extremities. Bone scintigraphy showed areas of increased osteoblastic activity in the diaphyseal part of the long bones of extremities and the skull. Electron microscopic examination revealed myopathic and vascular changes. serum immunoglobulin a, G and M levels were elevated and CD4 positive T cell numbers were low. Deflazacort, a steroid with a similar anti-inflammatory effect to prednisolone but with fewer adverse effects, was started in a dose of 1.2 mg/kg/day. Deflazacort treatment resulted in clinical and radiological improvement within 12 months with no side effects. In conclusion, steroids may be recommended as an effective method of treatment in PDD and deflazacort may be a safe alternative steroid. ( info)

2/64. cochlear implantation for auditory rehabilitation in Camurati-Engelmann disease.

    Camurati-Engelmann disease (progressive hereditary diaphyseal dysplasia) is a rare sclerotic bone disease involving the diaphyses of the long bones, skull base, and clavicles. Progressive sclerosis of cranial nerve foramina has been implicated in cranial nerve deficits. including facial nerve palsy, vestibular disturbances, and hearing loss. Two patients with Camurati-Engelmann disease and concomitant sensorineural hearing loss are presented. Both patients were evaluated for cochlear implantation. One patient was successfully implanted after preoperative imaging revealed no involvement of the internal auditory canals. The porous nature of the affected bone, however. necessitated the inactivation of 1 electrode to prevent facial nerve stimulation. A second patient was rejected as a potential implant recipient due, in part, to narrow internal auditory canals and rapidly progressive disease. The otologic manifestations of Camurati-Engelmann disease are reviewed, and issues related to cochlear implantation in this rare disease are discussed. ( info)

3/64. Scintigraphic evaluation of pamidronate and corticosteroid therapy in a patient with progressive diaphyseal dysplasia (Camurati-Engelmann disease).

    A 27-year-old woman with progressive diaphyseal dysplasia (Camurati-Engelmann disease) received pamidronate and corticosteroid therapy for bone pain. During therapy, disease activity was assessed serially using bone scintigraphy with Tc-99m HMDP. With pamidronate administration, the bone pain became worse and diaphyseal uptake of Tc-99m HMDP increased, whereas corticosteroid administration improved the bone pain and reduced the diaphyseal uptake. In this case, pamidronate and corticosteroid produced different effects. Bone scintigraphy allowed an objective assessment of the response to these treatments, accurately reflecting clinical symptoms. ( info)

4/64. Gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia: a syndrome of fibro-osseous lesions of jawbones, bone fragility, and long bone bowing.

    We report an unusual generalized skeletal syndrome characterized by fibro-osseous lesions of the jawbones with a prominent psammomatoid body component, bone fragility, and bowing/sclerosis of tubular bones. The case fits with the emerging profile of a distinct syndrome with similarities to previously reported cases, some with an autosomal dominant inheritance and others sporadic. We suggest that the syndrome be named gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia. The patient had been diagnosed previously with polyostotic fibrous dysplasia (PFD) elsewhere, but further clinical evaluation, histopathological study, and mutation analysis excluded this diagnosis. In addition to providing a novel observation of an as yet poorly characterized syndrome, the case illustrates the need for stringent diagnostic criteria for FD. The jaw lesions showed fibro-osseous features with the histopathological characteristics of cemento-ossifying fibroma, psammomatoid variant. This case emphasizes that the boundaries between genuine GNAS1 mutation-positive FD and other fibro-osseous lesions occurring in the jawbones should be kept sharply defined, contrary to a prevailing tendency in the literature. A detailed pathological study revealed previously unreported features of cemento-ossifying fibroma, including the participation of myofibroblasts and the occurrence of psammomatoid bodies and aberrant mineralization, within the walls of blood vessels. transplantation of stromal cells grown from the lesion into immunocompromised mice resulted in a close mimicry of the native lesion, including the sporadic formation of psammomatoid bodies, suggesting an intrinsic abnormality of bone-forming cells. ( info)

5/64. Camurati-Engelmann disease type II: progressive diaphyseal dysplasia with striations of the bones.

    We recently found mutations of the transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta1) gene (TGFB1) in 9 families, in which progressive diaphyseal dysplasia (Camurati-Engelmann disease) is segregating [Kinoshita et al., 2000: Nat genetics 26:19-20]. During the study, we encountered two unrelated girls, aged 17 and 11 years, who had clinical manifestations of the disorder, such as marfanoid habitus, waddling gait, muscular weakness, intense leg pain, flexion contracture of the hip and knee joints, delayed sexual development, increased serum alkaline phosphatase levels, and increased erythrocyte sedimentation rates. Radiographic studies in the two girls demonstrated not only diaphyseal dysplasia (cortical thickening of the diaphyses) resembling that of progressive diaphyseal dysplasia but also metaphyseal expansion of the long bones, coarse and thick trabeculae of the long and short tubular bones, striations in the spinal, pelvic, and long bones, and cranial sclerosis restricted to the petromastoid regions. These radiographic changes were overall identical with those seen in hyperostosis generalisata with striations of the bones rather than those in progressive diaphyseal dysplasia. polymerase chain reaction-direct sequencing of all exons and their flanking regions of TGFB1 did not detect any mutations. PCR-single strand conformational polymorphism analysis of the TGF-beta type 1 receptor gene (TGFBR1) did not demonstrate any aberrant dna fragments. We concluded from these findings that the two girls we described belong to a unique entity distinct from either of the two disorders. ( info)

6/64. Engelmann's disease with optic atrophy.

    Engelman-Camurati disease is a rare Diaphyseal dysplasia, characterized by endosteal and periostal thickness of cortex of shaft of tubular bone sparing metaphysis and epiphysis. The bone of the hand, feet, ribs, scapulae and pubis are not affected. ( info)

7/64. Ribbing disease: radiographic and biochemical characterization, lack of response to pamidronate.

    Ribbing disease is a rare form of sclerosing dysplasia characterized by benign endosteal and periosteal bone growth confined to the diaphyses of the long bones, usually the tibiae and femora. The onset is usually after puberty and the most common presentation is pain that is usually self-limited, but may progress. The etiology and optimal treatment for the disease are unknown. We present the case of a 39-year-old Hispanic man with clinical and radiological manifestations of Ribbing disease. Radiographs and CT imaging demonstrated typical cortical thickening in the mid-diaphyses of the tibiae bilaterally that correlated with intense tracer uptake on (99m)Tc-MDP bone scans. MRI demonstrated cortical thickening and abnormal marrow signal consistent with marrow edema. bone marrow edema may explain the pain frequently associated with the disease. Multiple serum and urine markers of bone metabolism were within normal limits. In an effort to ameliorate pain, the patient was treated with the bisphosphonate, pamidronate. In spite of treatment, pain increased, requiring additional and larger doses of analgesics. Serial radiographs, CT, bone scans, and MRI all demonstrated disease progression with pamidronate treatment. In this report we present for the first time the finding of bone marrow edema with MRI as well as disease progression during intravenous pamidronate treatment. ( info)

8/64. Craniometaphyseal dysplasia: a case report and review of medical and surgical management.

    Craniometaphyseal dysplasia (CMD) is a genetic syndrome involving cranial and tubular bone anomalies that commonly present at a young age, often with otolaryngologic manifestations. In this paper, we report a rare case of a sporadic form of the disease resulting in an early state of hypocalcemia with secondary hyperparathyroidism. A conductive hearing loss is also documented prior to 12 months of age. The clinical aspects of CMD will be covered along with its pathogenesis. The current concepts surrounding medical and surgical treatments will be reviewed, and the management of our patient will be discussed. ( info)

9/64. Craniometaphyseal dysplasia: a case report and review of medical and surgical management.

    Craniometaphyseal dysplasia (CMD) is a genetic syndrome involving cranial and tubular bone anomalies that commonly present at a young age, often with otolaryngologic manifestations. In this paper, we report a rare case of a sporadic form of the disease resulting in an early state of hypocalcemia with secondary hyperparathyroidism. A conductive hearing loss is also documented prior to 12 months of age. The clinical aspects of CMD will be covered along with its pathogenesis. The current concepts surrounding medical and surgical treatments will be reviewed, and the management of our patient will be discussed. ( info)

10/64. Early manifestation of Ghosal-type hemato-diaphyseal dysplasia.

    Ghosal-type hemato-diaphyseal dysplasia is a rare autosomal recessive disorder with distinctive diaphyseal and metaphyseal dysplasia of long bones and steroid-dependant anemia. The authors describe a 20-month-old girl who had had a severe transfusion-dependent anemia since late infancy and marked locomotion difficulties as a toddler. The diagnosis was established by X-ray bone survey. The anemia was treated with oral prednisolone. Since then, the patient has been doing well on steroid-maintenance therapy and has no more walking difficulties. The incidence of hemato-diaphyseal dysplasia in the Indian subcontinent and middle east is notable. ( info)
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