Cases reported "Candidiasis"

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1/43. diagnosis of esophageal ulcers in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    The esophagus is one of the most common sites of gastrointestinal involvement in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, with at least 30% of the patients having esophageal symptoms at some point during the course of HIV infection. Esophageal ulcers are commonly caused by infections such as cytomegalovirus (CMV) or may be idiopathic. The clinical presentation of the various causes of esophageal ulcers are similar; therefore, a thorough endoscopic and histological workup is imperative to make a diagnosis and, consequently, to provide appropriate therapy. The widespread use of more effective antiretroviral therapy appears to have led to a decline in gastrointestinal opportunistic disorders in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), including those involving the esophagus. Unfortunately, there are several reports of resistance of hiv-1 to multiple antiretroviral agents, and thus it is possible we will observe an increase in various opportunistic disorders again. The aim of this article is to provide a practical approach to the clinical, endoscopic, and histopathologic evaluation of esophageal ulcers in patients with AIDS.
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2/43. Fungal ball of the oesophagus.

    Candidal colonization of the gastrointestinal tract is common, but localized complications are rare. A case of an oesophageal fungal ball is described.
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keywords = esophagus
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3/43. Esophageal candidoma in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    Oral thrush and esophagitis caused by Candida are common in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. We present the case of a 33-year-old man with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome who developed dysphagia during a hospitalization for pneumonia. signs and symptoms were consistent with Candida esophagitis. Despite therapy with fluconazole, the patient's symptoms persisted. At upper endoscopy, a 1-cm, polypoid esophageal mass at 30 cm from the incisors and several other nodular lesions were observed; white plaques were noted throughout the esophagus. biopsy specimens of the mass contained hyphal forms consistent with Candida species. Therapy with amphotericin b improved the patient's symptoms, and resolution of the mass was confirmed by repeat upper endoscopy. We believe this is the first case in the medical literature of a Candida mass (candidoma) causing dysphagia in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Candidoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of dysphagia in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection or immunosuppression due to other causes.
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keywords = esophagus
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4/43. Intraoesophageal rupture of a thoracic aortic aneurysm.

    The intraoesophageal rupture of a large thoracic aortic aneurysm is reported in a 49 year old man. He had been hypertensive for some years while the aneurysm increased in size. Although a graft was successfully inserted to repair the leak, infection from the oesophagus with candida albicans, subsequently led to secondary haemorrhage and death 17 days later. A plea is made for the earlier referral of patients with aneurysm prior to rupture, as the operative mortality rises markedly after rupture has occurred and in this case the situation was virtually irreparable.
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keywords = esophagus
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5/43. Intramural pseudodiverticulosis of the esophagus.

    Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis (EIPD) is a rare condition seen in the elderly, with a male-to-female ratio of 3:2. Multiple small outpouchings occur in the submucosa of the esophageal wall, caused by dilation of the excretory ducts of the mucus glands. This disorder may be associated with gastroesophageal reflux, motility disorders, candidiasis, or other conditions. inflammation, resulting in periductal fibrosis and compression of the duct orifices, may be a causative factor. Usually, EPID presents with progressive dysphagia related to esophageal stenosis or strictures in the great majority of patients. Radiologic examination is more sensitive than endoscopy in detecting these tiny saccular diverticula in the esophageal wall. They often are noted to disappear after esophageal dilation, but may persist asymptomatically in some patients. We report two cases of dysphagia associated with reflux and Candida infection in elderly patients. The diagnosis of EIPD was made, and both patients were treated successfully. A review of the available literature suggests that EIPD may be missed easily because of subtle endoscopic and radiologic changes, but that once diagnosed, conservative management leads to satisfactory control of the symptoms.
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ranking = 2
keywords = esophagus
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6/43. Barrett's esophagus and squamous cell carcinoma in a patient with psychogenic vomiting.

    We report the association of Barrett's esophagus and invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the distal esophagus in a young 31-yr-old woman with a history of self-induced psychogenic vomiting. The development of intestinalized columnar mucosa and esophageal cancer in this young patient illustrates the complicated associations between human behavior and pathogenetic mechanisms involved in esophageal carcinogenesis.
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keywords = esophagus
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7/43. Candida oesophagitis with hepatitis C virus: an uncommon association.

    Candida oesophagitis is an acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining illness. We report a 28-year-old woman who presented with Candida oesophagitis with underlying chronic hepatitis C. The patient presented with anorexia and weakness and was noted to have raised serum transaminases. Upper-gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed Candida oesophagitis involving the whole oesophagus. Oesophageal biopsy demonstrated changes consistent with Candida oesophagitis. serology was positive for hepatitis c antibodies, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) genotyped hepatitis C virus (HCV) as genotype 3. liver biopsy revealed chronic hepatitis with moderately active portal inflammation. A human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) test was non-reactive for types 1 and 2. The development of Candida oesophagitis in a patient with chronic HCV infection demands prompt consideration of general debility and immunosuppression as effects of HCV that led to an occurrence of opportunistic infection. Evaluation of this case provides insight into various mechanisms of immune suppression associated with HCV infection.
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keywords = esophagus
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8/43. An esophageal mass with coexistent mycobacterium chelonae and candida albicans infections in an immunocompetent adult.

    Mycobacteria chelonae was originally included in group IV of Runyon's classification of atypical mycobacteria. This rapidly growing environmental organism often caused infections in immunocompromised hosts. candida albicans is a ubiquitous micro-organism and frequently isolated from the gastrointestinal tract. These two micro-organisms seldom cause esophageal diseases in healthy humans. We report a case of a fruit farmer with a submucosa tumor of distal esophagus caused by coexistence of M. chelonae and C. albicans infections, which was successfully treated by surgical resection and following antimicrobial regimens postoperatively.
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keywords = esophagus
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9/43. Fatal esophageal perforation caused by invasive candidiasis.

    Instrumental lesions, spontaneous rupture, and trauma cause most esophageal perforations. Transmural fungal infection is extremely rare, although Candida may be detected in as many as 25% of normal esophagus. In this report we present a case of fatal esophageal perforation due to transmural Candida infection in a 76-year-old woman. The patient died from septic shock and multiorgan failure, despite esophageal resection and systemic antifungal therapy. Pathogenetic aspects and treatment strategies are discussed.
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keywords = esophagus
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10/43. Oesophageal candidiasis after omeprazole therapy.

    Oesophageal candidiasis was diagnosed incidentally at endoscopy in two patients receiving omeprazole therapy. There were no other predisposing factors for the development of candidiasis. The infection was resolved rapidly by anti-candidal therapy and by stopping omeprazole. These findings suggest that gastric acid secretion and physiological reflux of acid into the oesophagus may play a protective role in preventing candida infection.
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keywords = esophagus
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