Cases reported "Candidiasis"

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1/86. Nosocomial Candida krusei fungemia in cancer patients: report of 10 cases and review.

    The risk factors, therapy and outcome of ten cases of fungemia due to Candida krusei, appearing during the last 10 years in a single national cancer institution, are analyzed. Univariate analyses did not find any specific risk factors in comparison to 51 candida albicans fungemias appearing at the same institution and with a similar antibiotic policy. association with prior fluconazole prophylaxis was not confirmed because only one case appeared in a patient previously treated with fluconazole. However, attributable and crude mortality due to C. krusei fungemias was higher than for C. albicans fungemia. The authors review 172 C. krusei fungemias published within the last 10 years to compare with the incidence, therapy and outcome of C. krusei fungemia from our cancer institute.
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2/86. candida glabrata fungemia. Clinical features of 139 patients.

    Candida species are now the fourth leading cause of nosocomial bloodstream infection in hospitalized patients, and non-candida albicans species now surpass candida albicans. The clinical features of the most common non-candida albicans species, Candida (Torulopsis) glabrata, have not been well studied. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical features of 139 patients with C. glabrata blood-stream infection over a period of 7 years. The mean age of patients was 62 years, and the most common admitting diagnoses were malignancy (28%) and coronary artery disease (18%). The most common identified portals of entry were abdominal (22%) and intravascular catheters (16%). At the time of fungemia, 63% of patients had fever, 45% had change in mental status, and 30% were in septic shock. Three of 50 patients examined by an ophthalmologist had chorioretinitis. The overall hospital mortality was 49%. Factors associated with increased mortality in a regression model were prior abdominal surgery (odds ratio [OR] = 2.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2-6.3, p = 0.01), and an elevated creatinine (OR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.0-4.7, p = 0.05). When early deaths (< or = 72 hours) were censored, amphotericin b treatment and total dose were associated with reduced mortality (OR = 0.2; 95% CI = 0.1-0.4, p < 0.001). Nosocomial C. glabrata fungemia is not just a disease of debilitated and neutropenic patients, but affects a wide variety of patients and is associated with a high mortality.
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3/86. Intracardiac fungal masses in high-risk neonates: clinical observations.

    Four cases of intracardiac fungal masses occurred over 2 y amongst 7 cases of systemic candidiasis in a neonatal referral unit. The gestations and birthweights were 25, 23, 24 and 30 wk and 805, 605, 640 and 1395 g, respectively. The pedunculated, solitary right atrial masses were detected 2-17 d after diagnosing candidemia in 3 cases, whereas it was the presenting feature in the 4th. All had indwelling right atrial catheters and received multiple courses of broad-spectrum antibiotics. The masses were removed successfully in two cases fit for surgery. None survived despite antifungal therapy, including liposomal amphotericin b at 6 mg/kg/d. Early introduction of enteral feeds, minimization of prolonged exposure to broad-spectrum antibiotics and judicious use of central catheters may reduce the incidence of systemic candidiasis in high-risk neonates. Surveillance echocardiography and timely surgical intervention may reduce the mortality and/or morbidity related to intracardiac fungal masses.
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4/86. candida albicans: an opportunistic threat to critically ill low birth weight infants.

    Major advances in the management of critically ill low birth weight (LBW) infants have increased their survival. Yet the clinical course of these infants is complicated by the emergence of opportunistic microbial pathogens. Most importantly, serious infections from opportunistic fungi, such as candida albicans, have produced systemic disease in vulnerable LBW infants. Invasive C. albicans infection is generally difficult to manage and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Because the infection has an insidious and rapid course, the critical care nurse and advanced practice nurse need to provide key prevention and early treatment measures.
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5/86. Spontaneous candida mediastinitis diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided, fine-needle aspiration.

    Candida mediastinitis is a rare clinical entity associated with high mortality and morbidity. It is emerging as an important clinical entity, probably due to increased recognition of candida as a significant pathogen in mediastinitis. Candida mediastinitis is usually associated with cardiothoracic surgery, esophageal perforation, and head and neck infections. Optimal therapy for candida mediastinitis remains undefined. Aggressive, combined surgical debridement and antifungal therapy appears to be the most effective of available therapies. We report a case of spontaneous candida mediastinitis diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided, fine-needle aspiration and successfully treated with oral antifungal therapy alone.
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6/86. Transfusion-associated sepsis caused by Candida parapsilosis.

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The contamination of blood components by bacteria is an adverse event, which, although very uncommon, has an exceptionally high mortality rate. CASE REPORT: A patient suffering from terminal adenocarcinoma of the ovary received a red blood cell unit. During the transfusion, the patient developed fever. Cultures of both the patient's blood and the blood unit were done, and she was treated with antibiotics. Forty-eight and seventy-two hours after the transfusion, Candida parapsilosis grew in the blood cultures of the red blood cell bag and of the patient. The infection was controlled with amphotericin. The patient died from cancer progression. CONCLUSIONS We describe the first case of transfusion-associated sepsis caused by C. parapsilosis.
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7/86. Intraoesophageal rupture of a thoracic aortic aneurysm.

    The intraoesophageal rupture of a large thoracic aortic aneurysm is reported in a 49 year old man. He had been hypertensive for some years while the aneurysm increased in size. Although a graft was successfully inserted to repair the leak, infection from the oesophagus with candida albicans, subsequently led to secondary haemorrhage and death 17 days later. A plea is made for the earlier referral of patients with aneurysm prior to rupture, as the operative mortality rises markedly after rupture has occurred and in this case the situation was virtually irreparable.
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8/86. Clinical manifestations and molecular epidemiology of late recurrent candidemia, and implications for management.

    The aim of this study was to define the epidemiology and clinical manifestations of late recurrent candidemia. For this purpose, late recurrent candidemia was defined as an episode of candidemia occurring at least 1 month after the apparent complete resolution of an infectious episode caused by the same Candida sp. A total of five patients with recurrent candidemia were investigated. For all patients, isolates from the initial and recurrent episodes of candidemia were available for in vitro susceptibility testing and genetic characterization by dna-based techniques. The results revealed the following salient features: prolonged duration between the initial and recurrent episodes (range, 1-8 months); recurrence of candidemia despite anti-fungal therapy; importance of retained intravascular catheters, neutropenia, and corticosteroids as factors predisposing to recurrence; high morbidity and mortality; no emergence of antifungal drug resistance between the initial and recurrent episodes; and relapse of infection due to the original infecting strain, rather than reinfection with a new strain. These findings raise several issues about the management and follow-up of patients with candidemia, which require assessment in future studies.
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9/86. Successful treatment of hepatosplenic candidiasis in an elderly patient with acute myeloid leukemia using liposomal daunorubicin and fluconazole.

    Fungal infections are an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with haematological malignancies. The organism most often responsible are Candida spp., particurarly candida albicans. This report describes our experience in a 63-year-old man who developed symptoms of hepatosplenic candidiasis caused by candida tropicalis after treatment for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). The fungal infection was successfully controlled using fluconazole, and the patient has been disease-free for more than 11 months after antileukemic chemotherapy without any recurrence of Candida infections. Our experience suggests that AML and chemotherapy associated fungal infections can be controlled with an appropriate therapeutic regimen.
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10/86. Management of suppurative pylephlebitis by percutaneous drainage: placing a drainage catheter into the portal vein.

    Persistent infection of the portal vein is a rare entity with significant mortality. We present two cases of infected thombis of the portal vein, one infected with fungus and the other with bacteria, both requiring percutaneous drainage to allow a response to antibiotics. The distinction between bland thrombis, infected thrombis, portal venous air, and pneumobilia will be discussed so that suppurative pylephlebitis can be recognized more easily as drain placement appears to affect a more prompt degree of improvement than antibiotics alone.
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