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1/72. Leukocyte adhesion deficiency II syndrome, a generalized defect in fucose metabolism.

    Leukocyte adhesion deficiency II has been described in only 2 patients; herein we report extensive investigation of another patient. The physical stigmata were detected during prenatal ultrasonographic investigation. Sialyl-Lewis X (sLex) was absent from the surface of polymorphonuclear neutrophils, and cell binding to E- and p-selectin was severely impaired, causing an immunodeficiency. The elevation of peripheral neutrophil counts occurred within several days after birth. A severe hypofucosylation of glycoconjugates bearing fucose in different glycosidic links was present in all cell types investigated, demonstrating that leukocyte adhesion deficiency II is not only a disorder of leukocytes but a generalized inherited metabolic disease affecting the metabolism of fucose.
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2/72. Onset of sucrase-isomaltase deficiency in late adulthood.

    sucrase-isomaltase deficiency is a rare disorder usually manifested as diarrhea in infancy. The presentation of such a deficiency in adulthood is even more rare, particularly when the individual has no history of childhood diarrhea. After a literature search, the 59-yr-old patient we report is the oldest to have been identified with this condition. The difficulties encountered in diagnosis when such a case occurs at this age that have not previously been reported are highlighted.
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3/72. A novel disorder caused by defective biosynthesis of N-linked oligosaccharides due to glucosidase I deficiency.

    Glucosidase I is an important enzyme in N-linked glycoprotein processing, removing specifically distal alpha-1,2-linked glucose from the Glc3Man9GlcNAc2 precursor after its en bloc transfer from dolichyl diphosphate to a nascent polypeptide chain in the endoplasmic reticulum. We have identified a glucosidase I defect in a neonate with severe generalized hypotonia and dysmorphic features. The clinical course was progressive and was characterized by the occurrence of hepatomegaly, hypoventilation, feeding problems, seizures, and fatal outcome at age 74 d. The accumulation of the tetrasaccharide Glc(alpha1-2)Glc(alpha1-3)Glc(alpha1-3)Man in the patient's urine indicated a glycosylation disorder. Enzymological studies on liver tissue and cultured skin fibroblasts revealed a severe glucosidase I deficiency. The residual activity was <3% of that of controls. Glucosidase I activities in cultured skin fibroblasts from both parents were found to be 50% of those of controls. tissues from the patient subjected to SDS-PAGE followed by immunoblotting revealed strongly decreased amounts of glucosidase I protein in the homogenate of the liver, and a less-severe decrease in cultured skin fibroblasts. Molecular studies showed that the patient was a compound heterozygote for two missense mutations in the glucosidase I gene: (1) one allele harbored a G-->C transition at nucleotide (nt) 1587, resulting in the substitution of Arg at position 486 by Thr (R486T), and (2) on the other allele a T-->C transition at nt 2085 resulted in the substitution of Phe at position 652 by Leu (F652L). The mother was heterozygous for the G-->C transition, whereas the father was heterozygous for the T-->C transition. These base changes were not seen in 100 control dna samples. A causal relationship between the alpha-glucosidase I deficiency and the disease is postulated.
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4/72. The ultrastructure of hepatocytes in alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency with the genotype Pi--.

    The ultrastructural appearance of the endoplasmic reticulum of the hepatocytes was found to be normal in a 5-year-old girl with alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency with the genotype Pi--. The liver ultrastructure of this variant is therefore different from that of alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency with the genotype PiZZ in which aggregates of an abnormal, unsecreted alpha-1-antitrypsin accumulate in the endoplasmic reticulum of the hepatocytes. The normal appearance of the endoplasmic reticulum in alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency with the genotype Pi-- is compatible with the hypothesis, in this variant, synthesis of alpha-1-antitrypsin is completely, or nearly completely, absent; an alternative hypothesis would be that an abnormal alpha-1-antitrypsin is produced by the liver and secreted into the plasma, but disappears rapidly from the plasma.
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5/72. Congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency arising from cleavage and secretion of a mutant form of the enzyme.

    Congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency (CSID) is an autosomal recessive human intestinal disorder that is clinically characterized by fermentative diarrhea, abdominal pain, and cramps upon ingestion of sugar. The symptoms are the consequence of absent or drastically reduced enzymatic activities of sucrase and isomaltase, the components of the intestinal integral membrane glycoprotein sucrase-isomaltase (SI). Several known phenotypes of CSID result from an altered posttranslational processing of SI. We describe here a novel CSID phenotype, in which pro-SI undergoes an unusual intracellular cleavage that eliminates its transmembrane domain. Biosynthesis of pro-SI in intestinal explants and in cells transfected with the SI cDNA of this phenotype demonstrated a cleavage occurring within the endoplasmic reticulum due to a point mutation that converts a leucine to proline at residue 340 of isomaltase. Cleaved pro-SI is transported to and processed in the golgi apparatus and is ultimately secreted into the exterior milieu as an active enzyme. To our knowledge this is the first report of a disorder whose pathogenesis results not from protein malfolding or mistargeting, but from the conversion of an integral membrane glycoprotein into a secreted species that is lost from the cell surface.
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6/72. Lectin analyses of glycoprotein hormones in patients with congenital disorders of glycosylation.

    OBJECTIVE: The congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) are progressive multisystemic disorders characterized by a heterogeneous deficiency of the carbohydrate moieties in various structural and circulating glycoproteins, representing a natural model for glycoprotein hormone studies. Here, we studied the carbohydrate moiety of circulating glycoprotein hormones in four patients with a clinical suspicion of CDGs. methods: The diagnosis of CDG-I was confirmed in two out of the four cases by transferrin isoelectrofocusing (IEF) and/or carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) test. The carbohydrate moiety of serum endocrine-related glycoproteins was investigated by means of ricin (immunopurified thyrotropin (TSH)) and concanavalin a (Con-A) (TSH, follicle-stimulating hormone, alpha-subunit and thyroglobulin) lectin affinity chromatography measurement. RESULTS: CDT concentrations were very high in the two patients with CDG-I and moderately enhanced in the remaining two. In the two CDG-I patients, ricin analysis of immunopurified TSH showed a severe impairment of lectin binding, both before and after neuroaminidase treatment, indicating a nearly complete lack of terminal sialic acid and galactose residues. In these two cases, Con-A analysis showed a significant prevalence of firmly bound isoforms with poorly processed carbohydrate chains. In the remaining two cases with unknown CDG classification, TSH binding pattern to ricin was modestly affected and Con-A analysis showed the prevalence of weakly bound glycoprotein isoforms. CONCLUSIONS: The results of ricin analyses in all four patients were consistent with the CDT test and/or serum transferrin IEF. The severe alteration of TSH binding pattern to ricin seems to be characteristic of CDG-I. Nevertheless, TSH biological properties are not severely altered, as normal thyroid function was found in both cases.
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7/72. glucose-phosphate isomerase deficiency due to a new variant (GP I Barcelona) and to a silent gene: biochemical, immunological and genetic studies.

    A 12-year-old girl of Spanish origin was found to be double heterozygote for a deficient GP I variant (GP I Barcelona) and for a silent GP I gene. The mother was heterozygote for GP I Barcelona and the father was heterozygote for the silent gene. GP I Barcelona was a fast variant (116%) with an increased isoelectric point (9.55), lability to heat and to urea, and shift of the pH curve towards the acidic pH. The other kinetic characteristics were normal. The ratio of enzymatic activity to immunological reactivity was normal in erythrocytes and white blood cells of the father and the mother but decreased to 75% of normal in blood cells of the daughter. The genetic and molecular mechanisms of GP I deficiency of this patient are discussed.
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8/72. Congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency presenting with failure to thrive, hypercalcemia, and nephrocalcinosis.

    BACKGROUND: Disaccharide Intolerance Type I (Mendelian Interance in Man database: *222900) is a rare inborn error of metabolism resulting from mutation in sucrase-isomaltase (Enzyme Catalyzed 3.2.1.48). Usually, infants with SI deficiency come to attention because of chronic diarrhea and nutritional evidence of malabsorption. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe an atypical presentation of this disorder in a 10-month-old infant. In addition to chronic diarrhea, the child displayed severe and chronic hypercalcemia, the evaluation of which was negative. An apparently coincidental right orbital hemangioma was detected. Following identification of the SI deficiency, an appropriately sucrose-restricted, but normal calcium diet regimen was instituted which led to cessation of diarrhea, substantial weight gain, and resolution of hypercalcemia. CONCLUSIONS: This case illustrates that, similar to congenital lactase deficiency (Mendelian Interance in Man database: *223000, Alactasia, Hereditary Disaccharide Intolerance Type II), hypercalcemia may complicate neonatal sucrase-Isomaltase deficiency. hypercalcemia in the presence of chronic diarrhea should suggest disaccharide intolerance in young infants.
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9/72. Congenital maltase-glucoamylase deficiency associated with lactase and sucrase deficiencies.

    BACKGROUND: Multiple enzyme deficiencies have been reported in some cases of congenital glucoamylase, sucrase, or lactase deficiency. Here we describe such a case and the investigations that we have made to determine the cause of this deficiency. methods AND RESULTS: A 2.5 month-old infant, admitted with congenital lactase deficiency, failed to gain weight on a glucose oligomer formula (Nutramigen). Jejunal mucosal biopsy at 4 and 12 months revealed normal histology with decreased maltase-glucoamylase, sucrase-isomaltase, and lactase-phlorizin hydrolase activities. Testing with a C-starch/breath CO loading test confirmed proximal starch malabsorption. Sequencing of maltase-glucoamylase cDNA revealed homozygosity for a nucleotide change (C1673T) in the infant, which causes an amino acid substitution (S542L) 12 amino acids after the N-terminal catalytic aspartic acid. The introduction of this mutation into "wildtype" N-terminus maltase-glucoamylase cDNA was not associated with obvious loss of maltase-glucoamylase enzyme activities when expressed in COS 1 cells and this amino-acid change was subsequently found in other people. Sequencing of the promoter region revealed no nucleotide changes. Maltase-glucoamylase, lactase, and sucrase-isomaltase were each normally synthesized and processed in organ culture. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of evidence for a causal nucleotide change in the maltase-glucoamylase gene in this patient, and the concomitant low levels of lactase and sucrase activity, suggest that the depletion of mucosal maltase-glucoamylase activity and starch digestion was caused by shared, pleiotropic regulatory factors.
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10/72. Mannosidosis. New clinical presentation, enzyme studied, and carbohydrate analysis.

    Mannosidosis is a rare inborn error of metabolism characterized by deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme alpha-mannosidase and widespread storage of complex carbohydrate, which is enriched in mannose. Two affected unrelated males, aged 6 and 26 years, are reported. Both had a nonprogressive encephalopathy with moderately severe mental retardation. The older patient showed several unique features, including massive gingival hyperplasia associated with histiocytes containing large amounts of a material with the staining characteristics of glycoprotein. The best determinant of mannose storage proved to be the ratio of mannose to other carbohydrates in urinary polysaccharides. The enzyme deficiency in this disease is most convincingly demonstrated at pH values below 4.0. The ability of zinc to activate the mutant enzyme in vitro offers a possible mode of therapy for this disease. Retarded individuals with a Hurler-like appearance and gum hyperplasia of unknown cause should be screened for alpha-mannosidase deficiency.
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