Cases reported "Carcinoma, Embryonal"

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1/44. The role of chemotherapy in intracranial germinoma: a case report.

    BACKGROUND: The case of a 29-year-old man with histologically proven simultaneous germinoma (seminoma) of the pineal gland and a stage I embryonal carcinoma of the testis is reported. An intradural metastatic lesion from the pineal germinoma was diagnosed at the level of the first thoracic vertebra. Treatment, after inguinal orchiectomy, was chemotherapy only, rather than conventional radiotherapy for the pineal germinoma. methods: Therapy consisted of bleomycin (B), etoposide (E) and cisplatin (P). MRI was used to assess the effectiveness of BEP chemotherapy. RESULTS: A complete remission of the pineal gland germinoma and the epidural metastasis was documented after two cycles of BEP chemotherapy and after 15 months of follow-up the patient remains free of relapse. DISCUSSION: The pathogenesis of simultaneously occurring germinoma of the pineal gland and embryonal cell carcinoma of the testis is discussed. The choice of therapy in these circumstances is a matter of debate and the good result of chemotherapy alone in this patient suggest that primary chemotherapy may be the therapy of choice in patients with pineal germinomas.
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2/44. Peritoneal carcinomatosis in germ-cell tumor: relations with retroperitoneal lymph node dissection.

    Peritoneal carcinomatosis from germ-cell tumor has rarely been described, and thus remains largely unknown. We report here five cases involving this entity. All five patients had embryonal carcinoma in their primary germ-cell tumor. Four of them had undergone retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND), and viable malignant cells were found. RPLND was performed for relapses (n = 3) and as primary therapy for stage II disease (n = 1). The peritoneum was the only site of relapse in three patients, and was associated with pleural effusion in one. The time to relapse after RPLND ranged from 6 to 14 months. One patient sustained injury to lymph nodes during RPLND, and another patient had a peritoneal xanthelasma. The only three patients already described in the literature underwent RPLND or surgical biopsy. All these observations suggest a striking relation between RPLND and occurrence of subsequent peritoneal carcinomatosis.
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3/44. Multidisciplinary treatment of advanced testicular tumor with bulky liver metastasis.

    A 21-year-old man with far-advanced nonseminomatous germ cell tumor of the left testis is presented. He had multiple bulky metastases in the liver and retroperitoneum with an extraordinarily elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein (23,500 ng/ml). He received multidisciplinary treatment consisting of systemic chemotherapy, cytoreductive left hepatic lobectomy, percutaneous ablation therapy, transarterial chemoembolization, and external beam irradiation for median segments of the liver. The efficient combination treatment normalized the tumor markers within 6 months and has maintained complete serological remission for 4.7 years.
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4/44. Isolated central nervous system relapse of non-seminomatous germ cell tumour of the testis. A case report and review of the literature.

    Isolated central nervous system (CNS) relapse of non-seminomatous germ cell tumour (NSGCT) of the testis has been reported in only 12 patients previously. We report a patient with an isolated CNS relapse of NSGCT, following a prior systemic relapse. From a review of previous cases, isolated CNS relapse appears to be more common in patients with embryonal cell histology (alone or mixed with other elements) and occurred after a median of 8.5 months following initial presentation. Long-term survival appears possible using multi-modal treatment with whole-brain radiotherapy, surgery and/or chemotherapy. However, the optimal treatment of isolated CNS relapse remains undefined.
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5/44. Testicular-sparing surgery for the prepubertal testicular tumor. Experience of two cases with large cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumors.

    PURPOSE: We review prepubertal germ cell tumors of testis in our institute and the Japanese registry and present 2 cases with a large cell calcifying sertoli cell tumor (LCCSCT) and discuss the possibility of testis-sparing surgery. MATERIALS AND methods: incidence, age, pathology and clinical stages of prepubertal germ cell tumors are surveyed for 30 years at our department and 10 years of the malignant tumor registry of the Japanese Society of Pediatric Surgery. Two representative prepubertal boys with LCCSCT are presented. One of them was treated by partial orchiectomy. RESULTS: The majority of testicular germ cell tumors in the prepubertal age were composed of embryonal cell carcinoma/yolk sac tumors or teratoma, occurred in preschool age, were limited to clinical stage I and did not metastasize irrespective of histology. Benign behavior which included recovery from hormonal derangement, no tumor recurrence and negative antisperm antigen was observed in 2 cases with LCCSCT who underwent either radical orchiectomy or partial orchiectomy. CONCLUSION: Partial orchiectomy should be considered as a standard option in prepubertal schoolboys with a testicular mass if surgically feasible. This surgical treatment is safe and preserves fertility and is psychologically advantageous. It is not recommended for yolk sac tumors that may recur, however they are rare in prepubertal boys and can be differentiated preoperatively by prudent evaluation.
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6/44. Intratubular embryonal carcinoma.

    Although intratubular embryonal carcinoma has been described adjacent to invasive embryonal carcinoma, to our knowledge it has not been reported as an isolated finding. We present in this report the histologic and immunohistochemical findings of 2 cases of intratubular embryonal carcinoma. One case was exclusively intratubular embryonal carcinoma without an invasive component in the same testis. A malignant mixed germ cell tumor in the contralateral testis had been previously excised. The second case is predominantly composed of intratubular embryonal carcinoma adjacent to a malignant mixed germ cell tumor. In one case, the intratubular embryonal carcinoma was immunoreactive for CD30, AE1/AE3, cytokeratin 7 focally, and p53. It was negative for cytokeratin 20, p21, and alpha-fetoprotein. These findings are strongly supportive of the opinion that intratubular embryonal carcinoma is the precursor of invasive embryonal carcinoma.
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7/44. Testicular germ cell cancer despite previous local radiotherapy to the testis.

    BACKGROUND: Testicular intraepithelial neoplasia (TIN, also carcinoma in situ of the testis) is the uniform precursor of testicular germ cell cancer. Local radiotherapy to the testis with dosages of 18-20 Gy has been found to safely eradicate TIN and germ cells, too. Thus, the general assumption is that the development of invasive germ cell tumours can be prevented by this radiotherapy. patients AND methods: Herein, we report two patients with one-sided testicular tumour and biopsy-proven contralateral TIN. Both of them developed germ cell neoplasms in the remaining testis although local radiotherapy with 20 Gy had been applied to the testis. RESULTS: One patient developed pure seminoma 7 years after completion of radiotherapy, the other developed a combined tumour consisting of embryonal carcinoma and seminoma after 5 years. Treatment consisted of orchiectomy in each of the cases. Histologically, both had TIN in the testicular tissue surrounding the new growths. CONCLUSIONS: Pathogenetically, a small fraction of radioresistent TIN cells overcoming irradiation and progressing to full-blown germ cell cancer in the later course may be the histogenetic clue to explain these unexpected events. Other explanations, though less probable, could be technical radiotherapeutic failure due to targeting problems and a pre-existing radioresistent germ cell tumour in the irradiated testicle.
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8/44. Unusual intrathoracic location of a primary germ cell tumour.

    The primary location of non-metastatic germ cell tumours of the chest is the anterior mediastinal compartment. Germ cell tumour arising from lung parenchyma is one of the rarest conditions in human and only a few cases of choriocarcinomas and yolk sac tumour have been reported to date. Here we report a case of intrapulmonary mixed type germ cell tumour, containing embryonal carcinoma, choriocarcinoma and yolk sac tumour elements. diagnosis of the lesion was achieved by open thoracotomy and bulk of the tumour was resected by right upper lobectomy.
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9/44. Alpha-FP normalization as a prognostic factor for mediastinal origin embryonal carcinoma: report of five cases.

    It is well known that a subgroup of germ cell tumors, embryonal carcinoma of extra-gonadal origin have a poor prognosis. We have encountered five cases of mediastinal embryonal carcinoma treated with high-dose chemotherapy (HD-CT) supported by auto-PBSCT in four, and resection in three. Our cases indicated that normalization of the alpha-FP tumor marker level during standard chemotherapy is a very important factor for cure, and the resection of the residual mass after chemotherapy is indicated due to the great risk of remnant malignant cells despite HD-CT.
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10/44. Angiosarcoma masquerading as embryonal carcinoma in the metastasis from a mature testicular teratoma.

    sarcoma can arise within a germ cell tumor (GCT) from a malignant transformation of teratomatous elements or as late sequelae to radiation therapy. Angiosarcoma as a malignant component in testicular GCTs has rarely been reported and is often misdiagnosed as embryonal carcinoma. We report the case of a 23-year-old man with mature teratoma of the testis and retroperitoneal metastasis exhibiting components of mature teratoma intermingled with high-grade angiosarcoma. It is important to recognize the presence of a high-grade sarcomatous component within a GCT because of its aggressive clinical behavior and different response to therapy.
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