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1/6. The risks of treating keloids with radiotherapy.

    The risk of carcinogenesis from radiation exposure is well known. It has been questioned for some time therefore, whether it is wise to treat benign disease with radiotherapy. We report a case of a patient who developed bilateral breast carcinomas almost 30 years after treatment of chest wall keloids with radiotherapy. There are only anecdotal reports in the literature of malignancies following treatment of keloids with radiotherapy. We review these reports and discuss the safety of this approach to the management of keloid scars.
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2/6. Mammary endocrine ductal carcinoma in situ: a case report.

    Endocrine differentiation represents a pathway of neoplastic development available to a range of breast cancers. This pattern occurs in tumors with different morphological appearances as ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), mucinous carcinoma, a variant of lobular carcinoma, and low-grade invasive ductal carcinoma. Endocrine ductal carcinoma in situ is an uncommon entity. It occurs in older women with a mean age of 70 years. Histologically it shows expansile intraductal growth forming solid sheets and festoons transversed by delicate fibrovascular septa. Conventional microscopy permits the diagnosis in most cases. Specialized techniques such as immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy can serve as the basis of diagnosis in the absence of the appropriate morphological features. We present a 68-year-old female with a 1.5-cm firm mobile nodule of the left breast. mammography and ultrasounds showed a 15 x 15-mm circumscribed solid lobulated nodule. The mass was excised and pathology was positive for endocrine DCIS. Although endocrine DCIS has a biologic marker profile similar to that of well-differentiated or noncomedo DCIS it may constitute a different histogenetic pathway of carcinogenesis in the breast. The tumor may exhibit the invasive characteristics of a neuroendocrine neoplasm. Larger studies and longer follow-up are needed for the determination of the clinical behavior.
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keywords = carcinogenesis
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3/6. Multicentric development of pancreatic intraductal carcinoma through atypical papillary hyperplasia.

    We report a case of multiple intraductal carcinomas of the pancreas associated with diffuse atypical papillary hyperplasia. A 67-year-old Japanese man with a complaint of epigastric pain was examined by endoscopic retrograde pancreatography, which demonstrated multiple dilated branches of the pancreatic duct in the body and tail of the pancreas. Histologic examination on the resected pancreas showed diffuse atypical papillary hyperplasia in multiple dilated ducts associated with multiple intraductal carcinomas. Histologic features are described and multicentric carcinogenesis through atypical papillary hyperplasia is discussed.
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keywords = carcinogenesis
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4/6. Metachronous breast carcinoma (second malignancy), following "cure" from colorectal carcinoma.

    Metachronous or synchronous breast carcinoma following or co-existing with colorectal carcinoma are well recognised clinicopathological entities, and the risk of developing both possibly underlines the similarities in carcinogenesis pathways for these carcinomas. We present a 60-year-old housewife with a history of a treated primary colon carcinoma (Duke's C) 15 years previously. Six months ago, during the follow-up care a small sub-areolar lesion was determined in a mammogram. A lumpectomy was performed under local anaesthesia, which revealed an infiltrating ductal carcinoma (6 mm in greatest diameter). Immuno-histochemical assays for oestrogen and progesterone receptors and c-erb B2 ongoprotein were performed. Axillary lymphadenectomy showed 1/11 positive node. She received adjuvant radiotherapy and hormone manipulation. To date, seven months later she is disease free. The aim of this report is to emphasise the risk of metachronous second malignancy of breast or colorectal carcinoma following colorectal carcinomas. A second primary colonic malignancy following breast primary carcinoma is more frequent than inverse clinical form.
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keywords = carcinogenesis
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5/6. Morphological characterization of the breast in proteus syndrome complicated by ductal carcinoma in situ.

    proteus syndrome (PS) is a severe, variable, and rare disorder with asymmetric and disproportionate overgrowth of body parts, cerebriform connective tissue nevi, epidermal nevi, dysregulated adipose tissue, and vascular malformations. It is associated with benign and occasionally malignant tumors. We report the first case of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in a 28-yr-old woman with PS who underwent a mastectomy for asymmetric overgrowth. The cut surface of the tissue showed a discrete, white, lobulated, solid mass with multiple cysts with occasional small polypoid nodules. Microscopically, the tissue was characterized by neoplastic and non-neoplastic changes. The former consisted of multiple intraductal papillomas and low-grade intraductal papillary, solid, and cribriform carcinoma. The non-neoplastic changes were characterized by cysts of various sizes, lined by cuboidal or apocrine cells, focally with epithelial papillary proliferation; the lumens contained eosinophilic, mucicarmine-positive, and PAS-positive material. Variable ductal proliferation and periductal, peri- and intra-lobular fibrosis with loose fibrous connective tissue was present. The carcinoma was positive for ER, PR, CK7, and MIB-1 (40%), and negative for p53 and CK20 staining. We conclude that DCIS may be one of the tumors associated with PS and that the proliferative phenotype serves as an initiator for carcinogenesis. This case highlights the difficulty of recognizing small foci of carcinoma in an asymmetrical overgrowth of the breast in a young woman with PS.
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6/6. A case of AFP-positive pancreas papillary carcinoma suggestive of a primitive endoderm phenotype.

    In a 70 year old woman with a tumor in the head of the pancreas, the lesion was predominantly composed of papillary adenocarcinoma protruding into the main pancreatic duct, with periductal invasion. The major portion of the adenocarcinoma was intraductal and was composed of tall columnar epithelial cells with pseudostratified nuclei, had the appearance of primitive endodermal epithelium and was positive for carcino-embryonic antigen. In contrast, in the other portion of the adenocarcinoma which had the predominant component of periductal invasion, neoplastic cells had an irregular, eosinophilic cytoplasm, resembled ordinary pancreas adenocarcinoma of ductal origin and was positive for CA19-9. Neuro-endocrine and alpha-fetoprotein-positive cells with a primitive appearance were scattered among the neoplastic epithelial linings. In addition, a vimentin-positive sarcomatoid component intermingled with the adenocarcinoma. These findings suggest that the adenocarcinoma observed in this tumor with the primitive appearance also had a primitive phenotype. This was evidenced by immunohistochemistry and the divergent directions of differentiation. This particular case illustrates that pancreas adenocarcinoma of the ordinary histologic type can arise secondarily from the more primitive neoplastic cells during carcinogenesis within the pancreatic duct.
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keywords = carcinogenesis
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